CSB346 Lecture 9 Review Notes

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Cell and Systems Biology
Course Code
John Peever

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CSB346 Lecture 9 Summary – Respiratory Control during Sleep What happens to breathing during sleep? - Altered breathing pattern o Sleep states  NREM sleep (deep sleep, slow wave sleep)  Stage 1 = theta waves  Stage 2 = sleep spindles and K-complex waves  Stage 3 = delta waves  Stage 4 = delta waves = hard to awaken  May involve dreaming  REM sleep  Brain waves are similar to awake state  Rapid eye movements  Loss of muscle tone  Muscle twitches  Penile erections (males) and vaginal moistening (females)  Easy to awaken  Vivid dreaming o Breathing pattern in sleep  Quiet wakefulness  Breathing pattern is regular and metabolically regulated  NREM sleep  Breathing pattern is slow and deep o Very constant  REM sleep  Breathing pattern is fractionated and variable, and may be dissociated from metabolism o Very chaotic o Affects the basic physiology of how much O2 and CO2 is in the blood - Altered respiratory network activity (activity of respiratory neurons in the VRG) o Since breathing changes during sleep, the respiratory neurons that generate breathing must be sensitive to changes in sleep o NREM  The respiratory neurons are active when awake, but inactive when asleep o REM  The activity of an inspiratory neuron is sporadic - Reduced chemosensitivity (chemical control of breathing) o The ventilatory response to ↓ arterial O2 is decreased in sleep (HVR)  Wake  ↓ O2 = huge ↑ ventilation  Sleep  ↓ O2 = small ↑ ventilation  Not responsive to hypoxia (e.g., less sensitive) o O2 responsiveness is attenuated/suppressed/reduced o More suppressed in REM sleep than in NREM sleep o The ventilatory response to ↑ inspired CO2 is decreased in sleep (CO2 responsivenessis absent)  Wake  ↑ CO2 = huge ↑ genioglossus muscle activity  Sleep  NREM o ↑ CO2 = small ↑ genioglossus muscle activity o CO2 responsiveness is suppressed/reduced  REM o ↑ CO2 = no genioglossus muscle activity o CO2 responsiveness is absent - Reduced respiratory motor tone (upper airway muscle activity) o Airway, intercostals, and diaphragm muscle tone is reduced in NREM and almost absent in REM  ↑ upper airway resistance  ↓ muscle activity  ↓ airspace = ↑ airway narrowing  ↓lung ventilation in sleep  ↑ hypopnea  ↑ airway obstructions o Upper airway muscle activity is suppressed in sleep (e.g., lowest levels in REM sleep)  Reduced airway size - Alte
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