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Cell and Systems Biology
Ron Ammar

Lab 5: Selection Analysis – Notes • Natural selection – the process by which heritable genetic variants change in frequency due to their impact on the fitness of the organisms carrying them o Variation is key Types of Natural Selection • Positive selection o Occurs when a beneficial mutation occurs o Increases in frequency, while variation decreases in frequency o E.g. antibiotic resistance in bacteria • Negative (purifying) selection o Occurs when a detrimental mutation is selected out of a population o The fraction of mutations that are detrimental is directly related to the evolutionary conservation of that protein • Balancing (diversifying) selection o Favors maintenance of genetic variation at a locus o Maintains variation by selecting for multiple genetic variants o E.g. a receptor protein that is strongly beneficial when a pathogen is present in a population, but does nothing but put a load on the system when there is no
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