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What is Organic Chemistry? Study of compounds containing carbon Organic compounds also contain H, N, O, P, S, Cl… 1 Organic Chemistry was first (and wrongly!) defined in 1770: • Compounds from living organisms • contain “vital force” that can’t be made in the lab Organic Inorganic sugars salts plant oils rocks starches gases waxes urea Vitalism disproved in 1828 Wöhler made urea (found in urine) from an inorganic salt: 2 Why is Carbon special? Not very electronegative (shares well, makes strong covalent bonds) Can make long C-C chains or rings (biological molecules can have from 1 C to millions!) C can make up to four bonds. 3 Examples of Organic Compounds peniciin Medicines Polymers Fuels Pesticides Dyes indigo From Nature or Made in the Lab! Nylon 4 Drawing organic molecules Dashed lines indicate a Lines indicate a bond in the plane. bond sticking back behind the plane. Wedges indicate a bond sticking out in front of the plane. 5 Abbreviated Structures pentane Each vertex is a carbon. Each unspecified valence is a hydrogen. Each line segment represents a C at each end. CH CH 3 3 H’s are omitted, but we know that C has 4 bonds so we can figure it out. We do not put a “C” where we know there is a carbon atom. 6 Zingerone 7 Chapter 1: Structure and bonding Nature of the atom: hydrogen and hydrogen-like orbitals Bonding in molecules: covalent bonds, ionic bonds Lewis Structures/VSEPR: bonding, shapes of molecules Valence bond theory Hybridization: sp , sp , sp 2 Read 1.11 – it will help you later, but we probably don’t have time to discuss in class. 8 Structure of Atom Atom -neutral overall - positively charged central nucleus (containing positively charged protons and neutral neutrons) - nucleus surrounded by negatively charged electrons. Elements - atoms of each element have the same number of protons (and electrons) Element symbol 9 Electronic Structure Quantum mechanics – uses mathematical equations to characterize the WAVE motion of an electron around the nucleus, called a wave equation, Ψ MORE IN CHM 139! The solutions to the wave equation (Schrödinger equation) gives orbitals – gives us energy and volume of space were electron is MOST LIKELY to be found. Orbitals of the same energy are called shells. st 1 shell: s orbital 2 nd shell: s orbital and 3 p orbitals 3 shell: s orbital, 3 p orbitals and 5 d orbitals
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