What is Organic Chemistry?
Study of compounds containing carbon
Organic compounds also contain H, N, O, P, S, Cl…
1 Organic Chemistry was first (and wrongly!) defined in 1770:
• Compounds from living organisms
• contain “vital force” that can’t be made in the lab
plant oils rocks
Vitalism disproved in 1828
Wöhler made urea (found in urine) from an inorganic salt:
2 Why is Carbon special?
Not very electronegative (shares well, makes strong covalent bonds)
Can make long C-C chains or rings (biological molecules can have
from 1 C to millions!)
C can make up to four bonds.
3 Examples of Organic Compounds
From Nature or Made in the Lab!
4 Drawing organic molecules
Dashed lines indicate a Lines indicate a
bond in the plane.
bond sticking back behind
Wedges indicate a
bond sticking out in
front of the plane.
5 Abbreviated Structures
Each vertex is a carbon.
Each unspecified valence is a
Each line segment represents a C at each end. CH CH
H’s are omitted, but we know that C has 4 bonds so we can figure it out.
We do not put a “C” where we know there is a carbon atom. 6 Zingerone
7 Chapter 1: Structure and bonding
Nature of the atom: hydrogen and hydrogen-like orbitals
Bonding in molecules: covalent bonds, ionic bonds
Lewis Structures/VSEPR: bonding, shapes of molecules
Valence bond theory
Hybridization: sp , sp , sp 2
Read 1.11 – it will help you later, but we probably don’t have time
to discuss in class. 8 Structure of Atom
- positively charged central nucleus
(containing positively charged
protons and neutral neutrons)
- nucleus surrounded by negatively
- atoms of each element have the
same number of protons (and
9 Electronic Structure
Quantum mechanics – uses mathematical equations to characterize the
WAVE motion of an electron around the nucleus, called a wave equation, Ψ
MORE IN CHM 139!
The solutions to the wave equation (Schrödinger equation) gives orbitals –
gives us energy and volume of space were electron is MOST LIKELY to be
Orbitals of the same energy are called shells.
1 shell: s orbital
2 nd shell: s orbital and 3 p orbitals
3 shell: s orbital, 3 p orbitals and 5