March 7 th
Non Fossil Fuels
1. Renewable part of the energy
b. Hydro electric
c. Wind, solar etc.
2. Text book – really good. Read!
3. Hydroelectric power
a. 80% of all the renewable energy is coming from hydroelectric power
b. Problem with hydro-electric power is: it is largely capped out (used out). There aren’t
many more places where you can pull out lot more hydro electric power.
c. There are ebviroemtnel issues: increasing static water, greenhouse gases can leave.
d. When you dam up and increase the static water there is a chance that you will be
releasing Green house gases like methane can be released.
e. It is large part of the global warming.
4. In the surface of the earth, there is far excess amounts of energy in the surface than what we
use for all our needs.
a. How do wind arise in the atmosphere
i. There is a place with high pressure and low pressure, then we get wind. Wind
moveing from high to low.
ii. How do we get pressure? When air is heated with more solar heating , air rises,
leaving a space with more pressure and less pressure.
iii. Sea increase ; if you are at a beach, feel the general breeze from the ocean
coming towards you.
iv. This is because during the day, the land gets heated more than the ocean,
because the heat capacity in the land is high. Rising air that gives rise to a higher
pressure, drives this circulation around for a few km.
v. It is a very gentle breeze. There are no of reasons why you try to put wind
turbines offshore. You take up some of the sea breeze coming in. the other
reason is that the wind closer to the ground is slower than the winds further off.
Because the ground has distractions which slows down the wind. Ocean has less
vi. Wind turbines so one of the major places where you can fix a wind turbine is
in a place where you can pick up the sea breeze
vii. The winds closer to the ground are genrally little bit slower than the ground
further along, because the wind near the ground feels dragged.
viii. So you want the turbine up above where it wont get dragged. Wind gets less
dragged in ocean than in the ground.
ix. There is a lot of thought into where the turbines are going to be kept x. C. ON have some wind power.
xi. One of the problems with wind is it is quite intermittent: you don’t necessarily
have wind always. It depdns on the wind velocity.
xii. And it the energy given depends on the velocity of the wind. The reason for it is
the kinetic energy of the wind so 1/2mv2 and how much winf is flowing throua
xiii. Because E proportianl to the kinetic energy and hoe much energy is going to
flow thourhg the turbine. Higher the velocity the more wind is going to get
xiv. Bottom line – there is huge difference if we have a 10km/h and 20 km/h winds.
xv. So you need high winds to drive the energy of the turbines
xvi. You can calculate the amount of energy.
b. Wind power is 50% effficeint because you can pull out 50% of energy out of the wind.
You can turn it into energy.
c. How much power can we take from the wind turbines:
i. The lakeshore turbine 100kW.
ii. The biggest turbines which are made now is 5MW. Much bigger than the
iii. The output of a power plant 500-1000 MW. This says that if we want to
replace a coal fire power plants and we want to do it with turbines which are
pretty big, then we can do it with 10000 turbines
iv. If we are replacing it with really large turbines, six to seven stories tall, then we
may need to put in 200 turbines, and wind will have to blow all the time.
v. How much power does a typical household in ON use? 24/7 2kW (keep in
vi. A big power plant is 1000mW. A housing energy is 2kW. then we can supply
500000 homes or so.
vii. Power is energy at a time, amount of energy used 24/7. Electricity usage is 24/7.
viii. Mega = 10^6 , kilo = 10^3
ix. There is much more energy in the surface! You cant build large structures which
pulls lots of energy.
x. The location of the turbine is important, but there is a problem with
intermeitten, and electricity is something which demand shifts at time. so there
should be another method of storing energy.
6. Bio Fuels
a. Glucose: monomer with a small polymercalled starch. Starch is made up of glucose
fragments. Can be broken down as a readily available energy source. Within plants
starch is called cellulose. But they both have the same building blocksof cellulose.
b. Lignin: in plants woody part, not a simple polysaccharide, highly branched, complex.
structurally robust, not easily broken apart
c. Triglyceride –backbone is glycerol, made up of condensation reaction of fatty acids.
7. Why are people focusing on biofuels as a renewable energy? a. Conceptually its a renewable resource, it is possible that it may not lead to co2, because
when we make it you absorb co2, and when you combust you put them back out.
b. 10% of the worlds land area equalts to all agricultural land area as biofuels to convert it
c. Biofuels is cutting down tropical rain forests, plants palm trees,
d. The corn in N America is not grown for eating, but for fuel.
e. Main biofuel is ethanol.
f. 5-10% of gasoline is ethanol. Gasoline is bio fuel.
g. The reason it is in gasoline it gives rise to somewhat less rise to emissions.burns the fuel
less so releases less NOx out. That is the claim.
h. The reason it is in the fuel is it raises its performance.
i. 100% alcohol cannot run a gasoline engine.
j. CORN GIVING ENERGY
k. Glucose (yeast) condensation reaction forms CO2 + ethanol
l. First problem: Fermentation reaction of corn gives rise to ethanol, and this doesn’t give
rise to energy. And this is a problem. You would like to get all the energy in corn, but
you get co2 but not energy, this is a problem.
m. Second problem: fermentation of cone has to occur with a fair amount of water around.
If you have too much alcohol around you it will kill the yeast, so you have to have water