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31 Dec 2010
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LECTURE 9 – Acids and Bases Equilibria
Slide No. Notes
Last slide
of last
lecture
-k small – not many ions
-all types of equilibrium equations, all have similar behaviour
starting at a point not at equilibrium, then tending to equilibrium
1-H2S is the acid
-NH3 is the base
-Conjugate base is the HS, conjugate acid is the NH4
-Conjugate acid-base pairs: the H2S and HS, and the NH3 and NH4
-Each acid-base pair related by one proton
-Water can both give proton, and receive proton
2-from left to right: acid base
-H3O+ is also the acid
-Acid weaker than H3O+ therefore equilibrium shifts to products side
-Strong acid wants to give protons, strong bases want to receive
protons
-Strong acids are more reactive
-The stronger the acid, the weaker the conjugate base
3-Ans: A
-HNO2 is the stronger acid
-Direction of reaction is towards the products’ side
-Cannot have stronger A or B and weaker A or B on one side
-Must be stronger acid and stronger base reacting to form weaker acid
and weaker base
4-the ion-product constant for water holds for any aqueous solution
-if either of [H3O+] or [OH-] increases, the other decreases
5-ACIDS section
-Water acts as base to accept proton
-The stronger the acid, the larger the Ka value
-MEMORIZE all six acids
-BASES section
-Water acts as acid
-Ka and Kb exclusive to solutions of water
7- Ans: B
9-Ans: C
-Ans2: C
-***weak acids don’t necessarily have strong bases
10 -Ans1: B because strong acids dissociate more than weak acids
-Ans2: A
-Ans3: B
11 -can have negative pH
-large [H3O+] – small pH – large pOH – small [OH-]
12 -know HCl is a strong acid
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Document Summary

1 k small not many ions all types of equilibrium equations, all have similar behaviour starting at a point not at equilibrium, then tending to equilibrium. Conjugate base is the hs, conjugate acid is the nh4. Conjugate acid-base pairs: the h2s and hs, and the nh3 and nh4. Each acid-base pair related by one proton. Water can both give proton, and receive proton. Acid weaker than h3o+ therefore equilibrium shifts to products" side. Strong acid wants to give protons, strong bases want to receive protons. The stronger the acid, the weaker the conjugate base. Direction of reaction is towards the products" side. Cannot have stronger a or b and weaker a or b on one side. Must be stronger acid and stronger base reacting to form weaker acid and weaker base the ion-product constant for water holds for any aqueous solution if either of [h3o+] or [oh-] increases, the other decreases. Water acts as base to accept proton.

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