CLA160H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Delian League, Ostracism, Athenian Democracy

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11 Apr 2012
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CLA160H1S
WEEK 3: LATE ARCHAIC GREECE AND THE PERSIAN WARS
Required Reading: Nagle, AW, pp. 102-110
Persians and Greeks
547 BC Persians conquered Asia Minor (modern Turkey)
o Aegean world became part of Near Eastern politics
Persian Empire suffered geographic weakness
o NE invasion from nomads of European steppe
o NW threats from Greeks and Macedonians
539 BC Expanded into Mesopotamia, took over Babylonian Empire
525 BC took Egypt and Libya
499 BC Ionian Rebellion
o Little help from larger Greek states (Athens and Eretria)
o Persians successfully brought Miletus under siege
Marathon: The Campaign of 490 BC
Persians take over Eretria and continue to Athens
Athenian assembly decides to go to war with 10 600 men (Spartans to
arrive later)
Militiades powerful Athenian military general
o Organized Athenian plan of attack
Athenians outmaneuvered Persians
o Persian loss of 6400 men to Athenian loss of 200 men
Athenians saw victory as a vindication of their decision to adopt
democratic constitution of Cleisthenes in 508 BC
Following victory, Athens advanced to new levels of citizen participation
Past Athenian Democracy and Modifications
9 Archons elected from 1st 2 census classes
o 487 BC Archons would no longer be elected but instead selected
by lot from group nomination by the demes (local divisions of Attica)
Connection between voting public and magistracies was broken
o Archonship lost its power
o Generalship took over political importance
Ostracism
Individuals could be exiled for 10 years by a majority vote
o Overly ambitious or having conflicting political advocates could
result in exile
Aristides and Themistocles
o Struggled with each other over naval policy and political power
o Aristides exiled in 482 BC
The Second Persian Invasion
Persian King Darius dies in 486 BC
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