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25 Apr 2011
January 14
Lecture #3, CLA160
Mesopotamia Egypt [Greek Pre-History]
3rd MILL Sumerian civOld Kingdom
2nd MILL Akkadian civMiddle Kingdom Minoans [not Greek, but their civ
[Hyksos invasion] preceded and influenced Greeks]
New Kingdom Mycenaeans
-pharaohs are essentially Kings
omonarchical system: single rule over Egyptian nation
oruled in dynasties (passing control to children)
-key aspects:
oNile: agricultural flooding, transportation, national unity
everything was a gift of the Nile”
civilization existed on both sides of the Nile harsh, desert climate beyond that
essentially vertical country on banks of the Niles
provided means of transportation and unity
Egyptians thought they had figured everything out, especially death and the
knew other people existed in the world, but felt they were inferior and it would be
best to ignore them
ochallenge of Hyksos invasion; eventual internationalism
between Middle and New Kingdom
foreigners who succeeded in settling in N. Egypt, in the Delta of the Nile
Egyptians unable to remove them for a couple centuries
once Egyptians were able to unify their country and remove the Hyksos people,
they decided they needed a more outward-looking policy and a more aggressive
foreign policy
marched up into Levant and if necessary engaging forcefully with the
Mesopotamians and the Hittites
did succeed economically with other countries, as well as diplomatically
opharoh as god-king; national bureaucracy
recognition that he is a religious leader as well as military leader
pharaohs delegated much work
opyramids, temples
large, public buildings
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Document Summary

Levant (geographic area of the coast of the eastern mediterranean between egypt and asia. Language, script: alphabet is not language (and ethnicity is not culture) people living in the same place are not all of the same race ex. Gilgamesh epic: thousands of years legend/myth tradition, sumerian songs, akkadian epic; preserved standard" version, gilgamesh, enkidu, ut-napishti, themes: city (uruk), ----------, journey to find meaning of life and to see if he can be immortal fails. Uruk: p1: he built the walls of the great city. , p3: he tells ur-shanabit to climb the walls . walls central to establish city-state in ancient world provided protection from enemies. Nature/culture: polarity of nature and culture, p1: a hunter/trapper soon discovered enkidu running naked roaming/grazing . Cosmographical wandering: p2: mt mashu: [the scorpian men] describe an underground route or dark tunnel under the mountains, the path of te sun-god .

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