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Lecture 5

Course Code
Terry Robinson

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Lec 5
Review of terms:
-Base is the core element, in Greek or Latin, from which a term comes
-Prefix is an element that attaches at the front of a base
-Suffix is an element that attaches at the end of a base
-Interconnecting vowels are vowels that connect two bases together often o in
Greek, i in Latin
-Compound words are those with two or more bases
-Coordinate compounds are when two or more words of equal rank are linked
-Subordinate compounds are words where the several components are not of equal
rank and in which it is evident that the first element of each word qualifies the
-Ablaut is a stem vowel change
-Bases connect with a vowel (usually i but can be o)
-There can be many prefixes and suffixes on bases
-Some bases will just add an –e to the end (typical of Latin):
oGRAV/e = heavy
oFIN/e = end
-Latin and Greek bases, suffixes, and prefixes can be combined within one word
-Learning etymology can help in spelling
oE.g., exasperate = asper = rough VS. exacerbate = acerbus = bitter, harsh,
To exasperate, annoy, irritate VS. to make more intense or sharp,
oE.g., hypocrisy VS. hippocracy
The second one means horse rule/power
Greek plurals: -mata
oCf. bases with alternative forms in MA(T), such as SOM(AT)-, HEM(AT)-
2.Greek words ending in sis cannot easily take a standard English plural ending (-s);
therefore, they tend to retain their Greek plurals
osis ses
3.–on -a (and sometimes, -ons) is -itides (rare)
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5.–nx -nges (and sometimes, -nxes)
6.Words ending in a vowel followed by x -ces (or sometimes, -xes)
oNote that in every case the Greek plural ending shows the form of the base
that you were given:
ox’ is a double consonant, in that it is a combination of two sounds, g/k + s.
thus when a base ending in g or k/c has an s added to it, the result is not
written as phalangs, menincs, etc., but phalanx, meninx, etc.
i.Note that the adkective formed from these words show the regular
form of the base: PHALANG/eal, MENING/eal, THORAC/ic, HELIC/al
oIn the examples, given here, the s is a grammatical ending used in the
nominative (=subject) case for nouns of a certain pattern
-PHYLAC(T) = to guard, to protect
o(gen.) phylactery = something that protects the laws (i.e., a small leather case
holding strips of paper inscribed with passages of Scripture)
oAs noted above, when this base is connected to a suffix starting in s, it
becomes x
Phylaxis (PHYLAC/sis)
-ALL = other, different;
-ER(OT) = (sexual) love
oDistinguish PHIL = love that includes both sexual and non-sexual
-HYPN = sleep
oCf. NARC = stupor
Sometimes their meanings are very much the same, but not always
E.g., hypnosis narcosis
Narcosis = a state of stupor, drowsiness or unconsciousness produced
by drugs
Hypnosis = the induction of a state of consciousness in which a person
apparently loses the power of voluntary action and is highly
responsive to suggestion or direction
-ZYG = yoke
oNote difference in meaning between the English homonyms yoke and yolk
Terms from myth
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