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Lecture 10

Lecture 10 - Early and Middle Roman Republic

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Adriana Brook

CLA160 Lecture 10 JULY27/2011 509 to the 2 nd Century BCE – The Early and Middle Republic - Republic founded on 509 BCE - People in the neighbouring cities fighting over land and resources - As a result, Rome expanded their territory but in a modest way Roman Expansion in Italy Latium - Capture of Veii in 396 BCE • Veii, an Etruscan city • Mirrors Rome as it too was gradually expanding • Rome absorbed its people and some were sold off • Absorbed into Rome’s institution/government - Rome not confined to their city anymore; starting to expand to other places with resources - Rome likes absorbing rather than coexisting with other cities - 390 BCE: Sack of Rome by Gauls - In the 5 century BCE, Roman expansion was confined in Latium Central Italy - Samnites were tribal people located near Latium • They equal Rome, as they too were a growing society but they don’t possessa city, like Rome - Samnite Wars: • First War: 343 to 341 BCE Capua, in Campania, was encroached by the Samnites They asked Rome for help First war was nondecisive ? Capua-Rome maintained their alliance • Second War: 326-304 BCE Rome sent Fregellae a colony Samnites declared that Fregellae was in Samnite lands and so refused the Roman colony Battle of Claudine Forks in 321 BCE – Roman defeat Battle between Samnites and Romans continued even after the Roman defeat Peacewas finally made in 304 BCE As a result of this 2 War, Rome slowly encroaches into Samnite territory Went across the Apennine into Apulia and sent colonies • Third War: 298-290 BCE Via Appia Won by Rome Samnites asked for peace– they became socii - Rome begins to expand out of Latium, started by their alliance with Capua - Rome fought with the Volsci and Aequi and were victorious against them - Latin Wars: 340-338 BCE • End of the Latin League • Rome the de facto leader Neighbouring places absorbed • Rome renamed the absorbed cities municipia (singular: municipium) Municipias were required to pay taxes CLA160 Lecture 10 JULY27/2011 • Municipia sine suffragio Has no right to vote • Socii (allies) Doesn’t have Roman citizenship Not required to pay taxes • Socii Nominis Latini Had special rights - Rome founded colonies and its people were given socii status Northern Italy - Rome came into contact with Sabines and Gauls - Absorbed cities into the Roman institution - Rome was determined to ensure the loyalty of these cities – make sure they remain Roman Southern Italy - Greeks live in South Italy - Greeks didn’t fall easily to the Romans - Native local Italians also lived in South Italy • Some supported Rome, others the Greeks - Greek cities not at peace: oligarchy vs. democracy - Tarentum wants to be in charge • Asked for outside help from King of Pyrrhus of Epirus (King of Molossus) • He thought it was advantageous to gain accessto this land by helping the Tarentums (i.e. trade routes, resources, etc.) - Pyrrhic War: 280-275 BCE • Battle of Heraclea – 280 BCE Greeks won but lost lots of people, so the victory wasn’t so great • Battle of Ausculum – 279 BCE Similar to the Battle of Heraclea, Greek lost was too much that their victory wasn’t so great • Battle of Beneventum: 275 BCE Rome finally won Forced them to become Roman allies They are culturally Greek but under Roman control Rome goesto war because… - Land, war booty - Leading Rome to victory as a general means personal glory – achievement that could help raise one’s rank to consulship later on - Political development? Why was Rome sosuccessful? - Internal coherence (esp. after 367 BCE) - Good relationship with allies - External threats (Gauls) - Geographically Central - Fertile and Populous - Military Organization and Tactics - Luck Inside Rome from 509 to the 2 century CLA160 Lecture 10 JULY27/2011 - Twelve Tables: 450 BCE • 10 men to make the laws for Rome Family matters
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