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Lecture 9

CLA160 Lecture 9 Notes.

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University of Toronto St. George
Johnathon Burgess

CLA160 Lecture 9 Notes Topics 1. Class and Gender 2. Democracy 1. events 2. leaders 3. institutions 3. Acropolis 1. Parthenon Antigone - sympathetic character - stands firm in her honour and values – symbol of freedom and justice - her uncle and he king of Thebes, Creon is depicted as a fascist and a totalitarian leader - chorus is dressed up a wealthy citizens of community - class, gender, government in Athens – society, democracy - relevant to interpretation of Antigone - issues are debatable – there is no one simple conflict in the play Polis - three major aspects of a polis – magistrates, council,thnd assembly - all three aspects in Athens, especially in later 5 century B.C. - powerful city in ancient Greek society - with power comes culture, literature, foreign/domestic policy, etc. - connection between culture, politics, and society Classical Athens Socio-Political Themes - democracy - development/nature of constituent parts of society • social classes, gender • political art, artistic politics Political Art and Artistic Politics - rhetoric th • in 5 century B.C. • many teachers of rhetoric – continuation of pre-Socratics in a way • sophists/philosophers • teach people how to speak persuasively – for politics, law court, etc. - architecture, art • art was often political in nature - politics was rhetorical – very artistic in a sense - very litigious society – being articulate was useful and important Literature and Politics th - in the 5 century – sophists/philosophers teach rhetoric - quote by Protagoras: “man is the measure of all things” - rhetoric • how to be persuasive • not taught to women, or the poor • kakoi v. agathoi – dominates politics – references to the elite – good vs. bad • kakoi – lower class, “bad” • agathoi – noble, elite, upper class, “good” - rhetoric is based on poetic models, including drama – literature - in modern times – division between politics and drama - in the ancient world – the two are very often interconnected - drama – provided rhetorical speeches – political art - citizen actors, rhetorical speeches – performed during city-sponsored religious festivals with a citizen audience - ancient historians like Herodotus and Thucydides feature a lot of rhetorical speeches • give speeches by characters • historical, contemporary – how do they get these speeches • persuasive, artistically composed character speeches Athenian Democracy - key reform leaders • Solon, Pisistratus, Cleisthenes, Ephialtes, Pericles • democracy leader – Pisistratus – not always considered this way because he was actually a tyrant – however, Pisistratus was a moderate tyrant • tyrants sometimes gained power through support from the people • aristocrats hated tyrants – giving up power to the common people, because tyrants were never aristocratic nobles – tyrants would bypass aristocratic rule to become tyrants • Cleisthenes later created the council of 500 - key events • establishments of geographic, not clan, demes th • in the 5 century B.C., there were four demes grouped by tribe – Cleisthenes grouped the Athenians into ten demes instead • transformation of demes based on tribe/family structure – was slightly aristocratically based – becomes a more geographic system • reduced the powers of the Areopagus – attributed of Ephialtes, and later Pericles as well • small aristocratic council of Areopagus – wide ranging powers at first • in mid-5 century B.C., Ephialtes changed the Areopagus – reduced their power to a homicide court – reduction of power • after 451 B.C., two citizen parents were required for citizenship • slaves, metics (resident aliens), aristocrats from other city-states – could not be citizens • sophists – came from outside of Athens to teach rhetoric for pay – but not Athenian citizens • aristocrats – very interested in social class and networking – often more so than loyalty to their city-state – double citizenship forced them to marry off daughters to other aristocrats within the polis Population at its Height - in the 430s B.C. population was at its highest - about 150,000 citizens, half males, half male thetes - citizens – bar was raised – property ownership was needed for citizenship - about 50,000 metics, male and female - metics could not own property, but were valued for their skills - about 100,000 slaves - there were many slaves – Athens was a slave base - plague kills about one third of the population - at the beginning of the Peloponnesian War - after the plague, there were only about 200,000 people in Athens Slaves - mainly domestic – serve family through chores and can work on the farm as well - not just in the city but also in the suburbs – part of the polis - some belonged to the state - state-owned – ‘police’ force, worked in silver mines - police force slaves – Scythian archers were renowned for their
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