Lecture #2 – Mesopotamia
o Social structure – Public places, property, non-nomadic
o Crafts – Tools, scribes, etc.
o Communication – shared/common language, literacy
o Government – politics, organizations, type of gov., religion, law
o Class structure – crafts, gov., social levels, finance
o Technology – architecture, weapons, metal, ships, etc
o City-state – empires
The big picture
o Homo sapiens – last 100,000 years
o Paleolithic – “old stone” (age)
o Neolithic – “new stone” (age)
Agricultural revolution ca. 9k BC (9 millennia)
o E.g. Jericho, Stonehenge, Catalhuyuk in textbook.
Ancient methods; eg. Greek Olympiads, roman consuls, “Julian” calendar
CF=Conferre “bring together, compare”
o Mesopotamia: Middle river place
o Sumer, Sumerian – 1 , dominant in 3 millennium BC.
o Akkad, Akkadian – 2 , dominant in 2 Millennium BC. tried to preserve the Sumerian
civilization, incorporated it into life.
o Semitic, Indo-European, Sea peoples
o City-states, empire
o Monarchy, but shared power systems
o Polytheistic, anthropomorphic religion (many gods; similar to greek)
o Literature: cf. Gilgamesh Epic, Homeric epics