Jan. 9, 2012
- Village= kome (agricultural)- interlinked with blood. With local cult shrine.
o Administration oversight of Mycenaean palaces. After it fell, they were on their own.
o Archaic period, basis for large state structure. Supported Leagues and city states.
- Cult associations
o Shared cult center between them with extensive political commonality
o Argive Heraion
Homer Iliad 4.8 & 5.908
Hera of Argos
Heraion sancruary. Nemea (panhellenic games) which breaks into
Heraion temple- earlest archaic greek temple architecture.
Earliest find dates to geometric date site situatied on three manmaid .
Oldest structure-block of stones (built cyclopdes)
Oldest temple were located on top of the palace.
Middle terres were the golen ivory of hera and on this level has the earliest
example of the courtyard with colonnades and stoa
Lower terrest had 7 and 5 C BC
In the temple of hera were the DORIC ORDER of temples:
Temple style of architecture. Temple of Athena and emple of Athena in
assos and pasetum.
Herion, sanctuary pulled in communities physically from geometric period
straight to classical period and another institution which was the sports.
First pythian games either in 591BC or 586 BC. In the early 6 C BC
On the site of Delphi, LBA sanctuary. Cult association and traditionally the
villiage was associated with python. Resettled by Greeks in 900s and first
evidence of archaic- Apollo was
700 BC and cloest asscoicated was corintians and thessalians. People not local
Apollo Delphinos- temple associated with him
Thought to relate to arrrialve of priest from crete
Nthe change was real. Python pythia
8 C composition date at Delphi to A. Delphinos
Oracle of Apollo. Oracle sends out colonies. Poleis with population issues would
send embassies to oracle where they should to and establish their colonies.
Thought that the priest were gatherers of information and give genuine and
helpful advise to consult the oracle.
Consulting was important part of political process.
Wealth was collected when visiting the oracle
o 600-586 BC 1 SACRED WAR: AMPHICTUONIC LEAGUE
Consisted of Thessaly, durians, Ionians, phocians, boeotians, magnesians, etc. Dfferent gorupd of greek ppl from mainland and islands
o SACRED WAR 448, 356&340 bC: varies city state to control sanctuary and treasure
o 548 BC temple destroyed and rebuilt with new priests by Alcamaeonids of athnes. Signal
of their power to fund the entire new bigger temple.
o Debree from older ruin temple of statue were buried on the site under the sacred way*
o This is a common practice in the greek world where one temple destroyed all the
debree is still sacred. Thus, dumps of votive deposits and temple debree were still
underneath/ pits of goods, scraps of statues, objects deposited together. This practice
ended up useful to archaelolgist
o Certain groups of communities had their own treasures for their dedicated
o New style called the IONIC ORDER- tall, slender, graceful.
o Associated of groups, creating new institution at delphi
- League= koinon
o Ethnos grouping: people or a tribe.
o Loarge association of community by ethnic bonds.
o Dialectal- linked by blood and language
north of attica, populated after Neolithic period for agriculture and had viliages
and towns and cities. Home of poet Hesiod- talks about father sails to live at a
town trying to find better place to live. He describes life as agricultural and
himself as shepherd and farmer. Went to Euboea to compete fro funeral game.
He describes community governments of BASILEIS (kings—leader. Local
chieftain) he also suggest that its corrupt taking bribes. (level of authority of
these men to settle matters)
Homeric catalogue of ships- in 8-7 C, this was dense populated with large
centers with many ships
Prominence and exercise locally in thebe, paltaea and tanagara. Formed alliance
with each other leading to boetian legue. Into the roman period and most of the
history, thebes had leadership. Unified with strong narrative of tribal identity.
Even if they fought with each other, they still were bonded by the beotian
identiy rooted into the Homeric myths. At a tribe were the member of Delphic
Decesasent of earlier coloniest setn out from beotia (sharing dialect) went to
asia minor end of bronze age.
First habitation owas island of Lesbos and tenedos
Aeolic settlement was a distinct archeitrucutre.
North aeolic were the TROAD
South aeolic formed political league which are aegae, cilla, larissa, pitane,
smyrana and temnos all in CYME
Southern aeolic shared cult centre of Apollo at Gryneum*. Dropped out of
political picture when Ionian took precidents.
Homeric reference to this group when the long tuniced Ionians. Suggests
different type of appearance. Greek’s own tradition said fleeing from dorian tribe, out of the north west- the
sons of Heracles.
Myth that ionans are older Greeks
Athenians put own spin saying that Ionian came from attica and Athenians are
the original indigenous people and ionans are decesendants from them. Fleed
from mainland Greece across the sea
Mid 8 C explosion of trade with near east
IAWANI/Javani- genesis 10:2—ppl in india refered to Greeks of iawani. Long
useage in the far east
Ionians were conflict with territorial pressures- lydians, Persians, carian
Ionian revolt 499 BC
o IONIAN CULT
Delian Apollo originated in Cycladic Ionians. Cult celebrated in mid 7 C BC,
celebrated in island of delos, Homeric hyme to Apollo
Panionia(all ionia) held on mainland at panionian, sanctuary to poseidon
heliconios. Dated in 700 in melie later near priene, then Ephesus (during
perisian conquest) but tranfered back to panionia.
Had stareed as cult associated developed into political association.
Difficult to pinpoint politica grouping to cultural association
When ionina deal with Persians in the ionina revolt, idea of Ionian
league came forth
More religious to political
o IONIAN CITIES
Different cities (presentation) 13 territories.
- Polis (plural, poleis)
o Political community
o Astu= urban space
o Physical city. Both political group formed by citizens as well as psyhial location of a city
o Ex of cities/city-state powerful with limited urban area ex. Sparta and large cities which
were powerful like Athens.
o Archaeological record of astu development were polis development in the archaic
period. Before iterary records were created
o Reason why polis wth important in classical period was because there were so many
o Classical period 5-4 C BC 1035 identifiiable polis. 287 of these were described as polis
in political sense in ancient literary sources and of those 287, 204 had city walls by the
4 C. political identity were also connected being built up.
o Important number of aspect of a polis
o CHORA= countryside/hinterland
Each polis controlled certain amount fo surrounding terriritory
Differed in size and strength and location.
Ex. Many were located in island.
polis and chora was distinguished in Greece cities.
Chora was valuabale fro natural reasources for farmland forest, pastureland,
vineyard, oliv grove, salt production, mines and fishery
Sanctuary associated with polis were located in chora.
Ex. Attica was the chora but connected to Athens Osnership of land was impotant. Essential in peraonl and political way. Needed
to survive and be involved as a citizen.
80% of classical polis had all their chora within a 2hr walking distance polis
Examples is KEOS: south of attica. Divided int