April 1, 2013
Festivals and Belonging
- Solidarity of community
o Town ,tribe, cult association
o Mysteries (not fully described to us)
Panhellenic festival where community was all of greece.
Participation: watching, eating, competing, revelling, processing one aspect of community
togetherness we’ve already seen. Center piece of any festival.
Honor of dieties… by celebratory side of things are emphasizing participating of honoring deities. Special
participants and belonging… priests who were set apart for running cult of deities, choirs (men women
children) who dressed specially for it as well. Athletes trained for particular event at festivals and
recruited assist with spectacles… floats in processions. Initiates were special participants because of
their secret knowledge of their cult.
Processions: ‘sacred way’
- Main part any rituals. Group opporntiy towalk together through speicla space. There were road
ways called sacred ways. Road ways outlined specific processional group one ponit to another.
Sacred way through sanctuary of delphi. Or sacred way linked city with sacntuary outside city
itself. Ex. Elise olympia. Procession gae pal in group opportunity to seen by on lookers.
- It wanst just about walking it but also about watching it. Staus as member of group to show it
off to someone. Thus watching was a way of participating in festivals.
- It was ordinary type rituals. Funeral and weddings all had processions.. rather smaller one.
- Procession are those associated with bigger festivals and entire communities.
Athens gives bets evidence for this.
1) Dionysiac festivals
a. Certain common elements and its rituals were mysteries… but bc so popular, we know
what went on more
b. Mysteries: MAENADS scholarly debate over how wide it was in the gk world. Features
popular subject and vase painting and visual arts. (makeup jar n slide) maenads dancing
in wilderness… leopard skin, snake, aspect of mystery ritual was eating raw flesh?
Referred to written text?? >.< but not too sure. On bottom, snake and musicians.
c. How many were involved? Not sure.
d. Aristophanes passage of the procession taking place- family group doing it.
e. Ex. Popularity all over th greek world, athens had 7 dioynsian festival every year of
which 3 had dramatic competition. Rural dioynsia but there were four others as well.
f. Athnes gives best evidnece. Particularly the celebration because of the huge pottery
industrialition for viasal evidnece and as well as texts
CITY DIONYSIA dramatic competitions and comedic competitons.
- Night time torch lit procession bringing god dioynsys.. (wooden cult statue) from his cult center
at Eleuthereae down into athens. Always took place on the 9 ELAPHEBOLION (sometime in
march) gods statue was always carried in ship carioit** look like a trimee. Wheeled in by satyr aby accompanied by music (aulooi) to the sanutary located in near the theatre of dionysus and
sacrifice black male goat.
- Wagon on top was decorated the top of a ship…. With donkey head on prow… suspended
beyond wheel.. (slide) pannel tilted to look like oars. Back of wagon was a net or a tapestry.
Chair/ thrown stuck on as chair. With grape vines.
- Took place at night…
10th ELAPHEBLION of the grand proession through the city.
- Lead of the procession, there would be a trumpet player announcing arival of god and girl of
noble status called KANEPHOROS (basket berarer) onher head as sacrificial offerings (bread,
cakes, fruits, vege, grapes*) alongside her is wthe chief magistrate of Athnes. (politicial duty ere
to participate in these activities)
- Folllowing kanephoros, a young men carrying incesnse burner, more offerings (bread on stick)
and men carrying phalloi, there were phallophoria. Wheeled or slave carrying the phallos.
- All these pal dressed up fancy robe (vase painting –lside) weraing crown and procession after
offerin was the choral leaders for up coming choral competiitons.
- As procession worked, it stoped ast any altars. Dithraymb chorus would strike the song. (dressed
as satyrs) while procession on the move, accompanied wth songs. Creud subject matter. On the
homeric epic themes. Performances took place when processionstoped and sing.
- Reason why this was pahllophoria was a myth behind it. Days gone by, athne plague with stds…
brought dioynius form ellutheria and got better. And to commemerate healing, bodies were
- Once sacrifice and bull was performed, participatns in procession would have feast on the bull
- That eveining, reverlly, the KOMOS (revels; komiasts) revellers plaunder through city torcehs
and sing and dance to lyres.
- Elements often associated with sionysus is that revelers and mieandas carried pinecones on the
Women are articularly associated with dioynsisna worship. Marching side to side with each other.
Under the impression women hidden away….. look at process of gk religion who had important public
role* as priestess and participants.
- PANATHENAEA month of HEKATOMBAION (huge sacrifce given in that month of animals)
- HEKATOMBAION was first month of ahtneina new year (our month of august) festival to start off
- Panathenia was intended for all athnes inhabit in ciy except slaves.
- Point was to honor goddess of athena
- Pan (all) Athenains (citiznes, metics not slaves)
- Big procession of this was depicted on freize of parthenon temple located half acropolis in
athens and british. Greeks ever get british government marbles back.
- This festival was held every year and every 4 years… extra versioncalled the great panathenia.
- Festival order of actiivty was 1) contest 2) procession 3) sacrifice
- Events of the contests: held in athenina agora (gym facitiliy until 330 BC that’s when athenian
built stadium and relocated there)
o Contest mainly atheletic…. Foot races, wreslting, pankration, pentatholon, cahriot races,
horseback races, apobates race (charioteer and guy armor jmp on and off chariot),
Pyrrhike, beautiy contest, lampaderomia, boat race honor of athens naval power)
o Al except torch and boat had 3 cateogry of ages o Musical side was the rhapsode contets. Musicin aaccompnaying themsleves as they sang
o Contest were divided according to political status.
o They can all participate. But only citiznes can comepte in pyrike, beatu troch and boat
race. (tribal bases organization) athnes had 10 tribes and each tribe send forward one
comepttior for each events.
- Because torch was held at night, it happened first during night during reveller before event
- Ay began after with races and apobates and boat race for citiens were the last events.
- (look at slide)
- Prize at the games were distinctive vases of the black figure amphorae from oilive oil of athena
with decorated with sport and date
- Its impotat that vi