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Lecture 4

Week 4 - Iliad - Books 9-16

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University of Toronto St. George
Timothy Perry

Ryan Breen Timothy Perry CLA236 January 25, 2010 Class Notes Midterm Will include everything from lectures o Lecture on Hesiod and the Theogony o And the whole Iliad Format Test will be 1 hr long Worth 25% of total mark Score marked out of 50 points 2 sections o Short answer 20 marks 1. Tests factual knowledge (that youve done the reading) 2. Concentrates on the main figures in each of the poems EX: Which hero wounds Aphrodite in book 3 of the iliad? What is an epiphyte? Facts about the poetry Questions about the background (1 class) Most questions will be on content o Commentary 30 marks 1. Given 5 passages taken from primary readings 2. Have to choose 3 of them 3. Comment on what the significance is 4. Each worth 10 marks 5. Apply things discussed in the lectures to passage 6. EX: talk about oral composition 7. EX: talk about formulas a noun and a epiphate 8. Relate all of it to oral theory 9. Talk about themes 10. Talk about the heroic code and behaviour expected from heroes 11. Intergenerational conflict (Hesiod) 12. Verbal structure how the passage relates to the broader structure of the poem 13. Length 1 page ( double spaced ) each 14. Concentrate on the actual passage you have in front of you ( keep it relevant) ILIAD BOOKS 9- 16 Book 9 Achilles is still in isolation, because of his argument with Agamemnon This allowed the Trojans to fight better in Achilles absence Acheans have built a wall to protect their ships, in fear of that the war might turn because the Trojans have been fighting better The Achean Wall Building may look back to beginning of war o Building of a wall is usually the first thing usually done to establish a camp by the sea for the arriving army Destruction looks forward to end of war o Wall is destroyed by Poseidon and Apollo 1. Poseidon is worried that this wall will be more famous than the wall of try which he helped build. Influence of Near Eastern myths of destruction o Plan of zeus at beginning of poem in prologue, relates to Near Eastern Influence o Destruction of the wall may be based on these same myths of general destruction o When this wall protecting the ships is first built, Poseidon complains, o Built by the Achaeans, who do not offer a sacrifice o This is Poseidons problem o Wall is destroyed through the flood o A number of rivers in troy is diverted to wash away the wall o The represents a near eastern influence, because the world is destroyed by the people being unreligious ( not offering a sacrifice) Iliad 9 is particulary important in the structure of the Iliad, but it also poses a problem Problems with Iliad 9 Phoenix place in the text is uncertain May be a recent addition to the tradition Embassy to Achilles o Described inconsistently o Main action of book Sometimes 3 heroes Sometimes 2 heroes Beginning of Book 9 Agamemnon is ready to give up the war and go home o This shows that he is a week leader Various people reject o Diamedes o Nester old hero, an advisor, not a fighter1. Advised Agamemnon to send an embassy to Achilles to try and convince him to come back and fight for the Achaeans 2. Picks 5 people to be in the embassy, 3 heroes = Odysseus, Phoenix, Ajax (giant) 2 escorts = o This scene is not well integrated into the poem as a whole 1. This argument is that Phoenix was not an original member of the 3 heroes in the embassy 2. The argument pulls its foundation from some questionably translation from the original Greek writing. 3. Phoenix is the leader of the embassy named by Nectar 4. Problem with translation is that greek have 3 verbs, singular, plural, and a group of 2 5. Odysseus is later named the leader, and phoenix disappears 6. Phoenix However then reappears and delivers the longest speech 7. Argument overall is then if it was just Ajax and Phoenix who went to speak to Achilles or how involved Phoenix really was in the process. Was the addition of the Phoenix added by the poet of the Iliad rather than by Homer? Purpose of the Embassy and why it fails 8. Purpose was to bring Achilles back into the fighting 9. Agamemnon has a long list of gifts he will offer for Achilles to do this. o Odysseus Speech 1. Great speaker, 2. Repeats Agamemnon
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