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lec 1

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Yuriy Lozynsky

Lec 4 Proposal due next week Finish proposal this week 50 year period between the 2 wars= Pentakontaetia Lots of dates and names Try to remember as much as can But what is most important is to Understand braod strokes of development What these battles and events mean for Greek civilization What we did last lec: Chieftain society and his small band of elites The transitional site of Leftkandi Looks ahead to expansionist period because we see pottery from other places, particularly fromAsia minor Zeus was protector of xenia Big factors of expansion period was colonization Trade Emporion= trading settlement As opposed to the oikia In space of 200 years, greek expands WesternAegean world and greaterAegean world Hoplite warfare ritualized communal activity The non elites and the not poor (the people in the middle wanted a say in the polis) Define trittys demes etc (administrative sections) Metoikoi the resident aliens craftsmen, etc. Today: Symposium culture cut from lec Panhellenism The conscious efforts to be isolated Rarely cooperated with each other In the ancient world there was nationalism in terms of your own polis Athenian, Theban etc. Shared language, culture, a common Pantheon, temple sites, sanctuary sites Rarely considrerd themselves Greeks Pan Hellenism= sense of unity within wider context of isolation Means all of the Greeks Delphi Oracle stationed insideAppollo temple? Representatives from other places in Greece sent to Delphi to ask oracle what to do The oracle very ambiguous The person consulting the oracle usually takes it the wrong way The Delphic oracle Delphi is this collective Greek place where the oracle was Apic of a reconstruction Temple right in middle of a huge complex Stadium, treasuries (where they make dedications and put money) Greeks and non greeks go to Delphi to consult oracle and to put dedication in the treasury Delphi showed Greek unity ------ Olympia (another place in Greece) The remains of the temple of Zeus at Olympia (1 of the famous 7 wonders of the world) Greeks from other places in Greece come to this place Famous sattue of zeus inside this temple (large statue) Famous scene=Appollo statue on the pediment of temple (the triangle at the top of the temple) Avase depicting Greek runners ------------- The Spartans Sparta was right in the middle of the pelloponneses Argos is slightly up north of Sparta Sparta was the dominant city- state Eurotas valley (the main settlement in Sparta) Sparta was well protected by a mountain range Good agruciltural land Lots of hunting land Had a river nearby Sparta and its relation to other places in Greece Laconia Laconic= very simple, very plain, get right to the point when you sepak th Laconia around the 8 century the Spartans increase their hegemony in SE polloponesses th In the course of the second half of the 8 century they fight these 2 wars with the Messinians (situated on the west of the polloponnesses) Militaristic poetry In these 2 wars, Sparta wins They get a massive population of MEssinians Which outnumbered the Spartans 8000 male Spartans (well protected citizenship class) At most 10,000 men (estimate) with a few allies They had to control this huge population of Messenians probably outnumbered the spartans 5 to 1 Lycurgus set up a plan Turned sparta into an entirely militaristic city Helotage Unique type of slave = not a private slave. The state owned these hlot slaves This huge population of Messenians (helots) who lived in this agriculturally rich place (Sparta) Were forced to agricultural work So the Spartans could devote themselves to war Became professionalized military! They thought they neede this military system because the Messenians always tried to rebel 5 th century in middle of poloponnesses earthquake Heot revolt Spartans brought down the revolt Sparta was always a kind of militiraized state to keep these helots in line ----- What develops in this militaristic scheme of things in Sparta is as follows: Athens transitioned fromj oligarchi government to pure democracy (ie. there were no representatives . every freeAthenian citizen could vote) Sparta also developed oligarchy and monarchy They always had 2 kings simultaneously Who always came from the same 2 families They were retained under the new constitution Then theres the oligarchic movement Council of elders (over 30 of them) they wer the direct advisory council to the king 5 Ephors= priestly figures in charge of sacrifices and rituals also plyed a political role The democratic element in Sparta was the assembly These were the full Spartan warroiors (calleld the Hopmooio= the equals) Some people were not turned into helots by the Spartans these were the People who live around = perioikoi Spartans used them as craftsmen, sometimes sent them to wider greek world on missions Sparta was very closed, isolated, they used these prioikoi as the buffers with the wider world Messians formed
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