June 12, 2013
CLA204 Week 13
The Trojan War
June 3 until today-Quiz
Heroes punish wicked, help good, and break moulds with their own behaviour.
Reciprocity. Can be transgresive of same justice they do.
Who is “Homer”?
Iliad only tells about a small section of the Trojan war. Iliad talks abt 2 weeks period
of 10yr war. Iliad ends before war does. Ppl say author is homer but that’s not
accurate, much larger changing tradition.
Wedding of Peleus and Thetis
Thetis is an immortal nymph and a mortal human man Peleus. Zeus was interested
in Thetis but if he had a child with her then their child would overthrow him. Hera is
happy so throws a lavish wedding and so all gods are invited. Offspring of their
union is Achilles
Birth of Achilles
Starring figure of Iliad and Trojan War. Tutored by wise centaur Chiron. Achilles is
skilled in fighting, music and poetry. His mother seeing how extraordinary he is
wants to make him immortal, she dips him in the river Styx (river of underworld
were gods swear) the heel that she’s holding doesn’t become protected so only weak
spot was his heel. She doesn’t succeed in making him immortal, he is more than
average human beings, more invulnerable then others.
Hecuba, Priam and Paris
Paris is a Trojan from the other side of Aegean Sea. Hecuba is queen pregnant with
Paris has dream gives birth to flaming torch goes to prophet, which tells her that if
she lets him live, city of Troy will fall. Parents Priam and Hecuba give baby to
shepherd that is unwilling to kill child so Paris grows up with the Sheppard.
The Judgement of Paris
All of the gods were invited to wedding except Eris the goddess of strife, she is
annoyed so revenge is taking simple apple and attaches label to it that says “for the
fairest one” and tosses it in the middle of the crowd, immediately Athena, Hera and
Aphrodite claim apple was intended for them that they were the most beautiful.
They go to Zeus, Zeus says he won’t make decision instead calls in Paris to make
decision, Zeus whisks him from mountain and drops him in the middle of wedding.
This was fated; part of way bringing destruction of Troy was being at wedding
making decision. Paris asks them all to strip down, Paris still cant decide, Athena
offers him the ability to be the most glorious general, Hera offers him to be a mighty
king with political power, Aphrodite says if she is picked she will deliver to him the
most beautiful woman in the entire world. Since he is a young kid, he chooses
Aphrodite and accepts his reward. This is what causes Trojan War. June 12, 2013
Leda and the Swan
Zeus appears as a swan to Leda, Leda gave birth to egg, Helen was inside, her father
doesn’t know how to marry Helen off cuz every guy wants to marry her.
Helen and the Oath of Tyndareus
Tyndareus (Helen’s father) Odysseus says problem isn’t deciding who Helen’s
husband will be, it should be who ever has the highest offer, the problem is how to
deal with the other suitors who will be disappointed proposes oath whoever gets
her everyone else cant steal her. Menelaus is the richest so he gets to marry her. And
all other suitors agree if anything happens to Helen they will help get her back.
The Abduction of Helen
Myth is unclear if she was abducted or if she was forced to fall in love with Paris.
Homer doesn’t make Helens though process clear. Helen does feel guilty ppl are
dying to save her. Menelaus is upset and huge breach of hospitality; Zeus said Xenia
must be respected. Menelaus calls on the suitors and they all gather armies and
ships and sail to troy to get Helen back.
The Greek Fleet at Aulis
Agamemnon had to sacrifice his daughter Ipheginia to get the fleet to move cuz of
Chryseis returned to Chryses
Iliad starts with a quarrel. Agamemnon vs. Achilles. Achilles is the best fighter and
he is the one who will win the war. Agamemnon has taken Chryseis she is a war
captive and is a slave to Agamemnon her father Chryses has offered a huge ransom
for his daughter, Agamemnon refuses, as a result Apollo who Chryses is a priest to,
sends down a plague. Finally Agamemnon knows only way to stop plague is to give
girl back but as a result he randomly decides he will take one of Achilles captive
Agamemnon Takes Briseis from Achilles
Agamemnon is annoyed had to give back his girl (Chryseis) and Achilles is mad that
Agamemnon took his girl (Briseis)
τιμή (time) Honour= your worth as a warrior how respected and important you
are to the army
γέρας (geras) prize= in order to show you are the best warrior you have to have
the most stuff, your worth is measured in how much material stuff you have as a
result of being a hero and fighting.
What he is doing is making Achilles less honoured by other soldiers in the army
doesn’t have as many accomplishments. Achilles was going to kill Agamemnon
Athena tells him not to, but Achilles decides instead to withdraw from the battle.
Barely see Achilles for 16 books, sulking that his girl was been taken, sits in tent on June 12, 2013
beach angry he is dishonoured. Achilles says that Hector will kill many warriors and
that Agamemnon and the other Achaeans will want Achilles to fight with them.
Achilles Sulks in his Tent
Achilles promises he wont go back to battle no matter how many ppl die,
Agamemnon will need him and that he wont help. Plays lyre drinks wine. Showing
Embassy to Achilles: Odysseys, Phoenix, Ajax
Agamemnon offers Achilles in compensation far beyond what Agamemnon took
from Achilles. Achilles in unwilling to go back to battle. Agamemnon doesn’t even go
himself, he sends 3 men which try persuading him in diff ways, the best speaker
Odysseus, then Phoenix Achilles tutor talks abt Achilles father, Ajax appeals to him
as man to man. All three force him to reconsider but Achilles says no.
Patroclus Approaches Achilles
Achilles has a soft spot for Patroclus, probably had a romantic relationship,
Patroclus tries to get Achilles to go back to battle, but fails, Achilles compromises
and lets Patroclus wear his armour so that Trojans will fear him.
Achilles prays to Zeus, Zeus agrees that Patroclus should drive the battle fighting
from the ships, but not that he’s return in safety from the war.
Death of Sarpedon
Patroclus spears/kills Sarpedon and