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Lecture

CLA 219.L11.06.Notes

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Department
Classics
Course
CLA219H1
Professor
Regina Höschele
Semester
Fall

Description
CLA 219 – W OMEN INANTIQUITY R. Höschele 11/06/12 W OMEN AND RITUAL **G UEST LECTUR– JEN OLIVER([email protected]) - NO CLASSES NEXT WEEK - MIDTERM IN2 WEEKS WITH ALECTURE AFTERWARDS – NOV. 20 - Euripides, Captive Melanippe – importance of religious rituals and women’s roles in it - One aspect in which women’s role is dominant in a way o Paid rations, share of sacrificial meat, skins of the animals, date year by the priestesses (of Argos) o Female deities – female priestesses o Temple = house ~ housekeepers - tend the deities - Classical Athens, Aristophanes’ Lysistrata – female cultic activity, religious roles in different stages of a woman’s life o Aletris, corn grinder of goddess o Kanephoros, basket carrier in a procession o Anephoros, Brauronia - Gentilician priesthoods – tribal, family-ruled - Athena Polias (and Poseidon Erecthonous?) – priests come from the Eteoboutadai genos (family) - Pandron, Boutes, Erechtheus – origin myth of the Athenian gentilician priesthoods - Democratic priesthoods – open only to citizens, satisfy qualifications o Paths to priesthoods: inheritance, allotment, election / appointment / purchase - No payments for public services o Purchased priesthoods common in colonies (East, Asia Minor) - Healthy, of sound body, free from defects o To be servants of gods, one must be perfect as well - Pandron, king of Athens, Boutes and Erechtheus his sons o Upon his death, Boutes inherits priesthoods tied to kingship, and the Etouboutadai claims descent from him to justify control of Athena Polias priesthood Arrhephoria – the carrying of secret things - Erechthonious - Cecrops, daughters Herse, Aglaurus, Pandrosus - 2 Athenian girls, between 7-11 years old, live in the Acropolis for a year with the priestess o Help with the maintenance of the temple o Help weave the peplos of the cult statue of Athena o Made to carry baskets through a tunnel underground leading to a sanctuary of Eros and Aphrodite, deposit whatever was in the basket, and bring back whatever is at the sanctuary, all without knowing what those things were (i.e., no one does) - Hephaestus attempted to rape Athena, ejaculates on thigh instead, semen that fell on the soil created Erecthonious, the ancestor of all Athenians – can claim descent from a virgin goddess then - Cecrops’ daughters given basket by Athena and told them not to look but they did and saw the baby Erechthonious lying inside with snakes – scared them and made them jump off the cliff – origin of the underground ritual - Sexual initiation – serpents are phallic; carrying something unknown, sanctuary of Eros and Aphrodite, fertility symbolism - Athena’s peplos on the Parthenon frieze o Child hands over the finished peplos to a magistrate o Peplos woven annually Arkteia - Held at Brauron – in Attica, near Athens - Arktoi - Associated with bears - Festival for Artemis (virgin goddess) - Transition into maidenhood - Done every 4 years, only the daughters of Athenian citizens - Procession from Athens to Brauron - Dancing, choruses, races - Saffron colour robes were worn, as well as bear masks - Bear is sacred to Artemis, girl child was scratched by a bear and was killed, goddess sent a plague, appeased her by having girls pretend to be bears Anthisteria – wine and drinking, Dionysius - Spring festival celebrated over 3 days o Pithiogia, Choes, Chytoi - Slave participation, reversal of social order - 1 day: opening of the jars at temple of Dionysius in the marshes o Open jars, drink/taste the wine nd - 2 day: libation, vessels in which the libation is contained - People have to drink a lot - Children, 3 years old, 1 pitcher of wine – initiation into the family - Sacrifice – wine – blood - One tradition – blood of Dionysius - Procession to Dionysius’ temple - Gerarai, venerable ones controlled by Basilinna, wife of the Archon Basileus - Sacred marriage of god Dionysius (re-enactment?) - Chytroi (?) pots o Different grains, offering to Hermes Chthonius - Erigone (daughter of Icarius) - Death and life festival - Girls swing happily – association with Erigone’s suicide (hanging) Adonia - Adonis, lover of Aphrodite - Bron, Hellenistic poet, lament for Adonis - Gardens, lamenting at the rooftops o Let gardens die and throw at sea (?) - Funereal Thesmophoria - Pigs sacrificed - Festival honouring Demeter o Derived from one of her epithets, “Demeter Thesmophoros” - Anodos, nesteia, kalligenia (?) - Restricted to adult women, not for young girls, and simply not just for citizens but also for the female peasantry - Anodos o Pynx, hill where assembly took place o Bring food, offerings, sacrificial animals - Nesteia o Day of mourning for Persephone o Sit around, fasting - Kalligenia o Good birth o Day of merriment and celebration o Obscene jokes made (tribute to Iambe) - Simulating emotions of Demeter - Pigs thrown into pits, with cakes shaped like penises, t
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