CLA230 Lecture 2 Text Notes
Key Terms (Ch. 1)
- Attic: from Attica (countryside around Athens)
- Bronze Age:
• civilization – early Bronze Age begins in Greece with introduction of
bronze metallurgy, c. 3000-2000 B.C.
• Sumerian cities flourish in Mesopotamia, c. 2800-2340 B.C.
• Minoan civilization flourishes on Crete, c. 2500-1200 B.C.
• Akkadian Empire in Mesopotamia, c. 2334-2220 B.C.
• Sumerian revival, c. 2200-2000 B.C.
• civilization – middle Bronze Age begins with the destruction of
communities across the Greek mainland, c. 2000-1600 B.C.
• old Babylon Empire in Mesopotamia, c. 1900-1550 B.C.
• civilization – late Bronze Age (or Mycenaean Age) begins, c. 1600 B.C.
• Hittite Empire rules in Anatolia, c. 1700-1200 B.C.
• Phoenician syllabic writing appears, c. 1500 B.C.
• most likely date for Trojan War, c. 1250-1200 B.C.
- Mesopotamia: “the land between rivers”, present day Iraq – Mesopotamian
kings claimed they had special relationships with the gods, and unless they
interceded, the gods would not smile upon humans
- Dark Age:
• also called Iron age – begins with the destruction of Mycenaean cities
in Greece, c. 1200-1100 B.C.
• old order of god-like kings revived in Mesopotamia and Egypt
• writing disappeared from Greece – population shrank and was isolated
from wider world
• emerged from Dark Age in around 800 B.C.
• Greek colonies settled in Asia Minor, c. 950-900 B.C.
• Greek colonies in Sicily and southern Italy, c. 800-600 B.C.
- polis: the city-state, Greek word – way of organizing cities (not kingdoms)
after Dark Age
- the Greek problem:
• fundamental conflict by a set of conditions that Greek thinkers
• what was the relationship between mortals and divine?
• Greeks saw their city-states as communities of equal, free males
(basis/origin of the concept of citizenship) – refused to believe that
gods gave any individual or narrow elite a divine right to rule
• most Greeks held the belief that gods were powerful and wise, that the
world was full of spirits and ghosts, and that a few oracles and priests
could give access to the supernatural (however, access was open to
challenge – oracles/priests could not use it to dominate others)
- demokratia: theory of equal qualification – male citizens debates and voted
on the major issues – “democracy”
- Archaic Period:
• begins with the invention of Greek alphabet, c. 800 B.C.
• The Iliad and The Odyssey, attributed to Homer, are written down, c.
• Olympic games begin, 776 B.C.
• Rome, allegedly, is founded, 753 B.C. • Hesiod’s Theogony is written down, c. 750-700 B.C.
• Homeric Hymns, c. 700-500 B.C.
• cyclic poets, c. 650 -500 B.C.
• Age of Tyrants, c. 650-500 B.C.
• Cyrus the Great of Persia, c. 590-530 B.C.
• Xenophanes, c. 570-460 B.C.
• Pindar, 518-438 B.C.
• Simonides, leter 6 to early 5 century B.C.
• alleged date of the expulsion of the Etruscan dynasty at Rome and the
foundation of the Rothn Republic, 510 B.C.
• Baccylides, early 5 century B.C.
• Persians invade Aegean Greece, Battle of Marathon, 490 B.C.
• Carthage invades Sicily, Greek victory at Himera, 480 B.C.
• Persians invade Aegean Greece again, destruction of Athens, Greek
victory at Salamis and Platea, 480-479 B.C.
- Classical Period:
• begins with the end of the Persian Wars, 480 B.C.
• Aeschylus, 525-456 B.C.
• Sophocles, 496-406 B.C.
• Herodotus, c. 484-420 B.C.
• Euripides, 480-406 B.C.
• Roman Twelve Tables are committed to writing, 451 B.C.
• Socrates, 469-399 B.C.
• Peloponnesian War, 431-404 B.C.
• Thucydides, c. 460-400 B.C.
• Biblical book of Genesis reaches present form, c. 400 B.C.
• Plato, 427-437 B.C.
• Hippocrates, c. 400 B.C.
• Aristotle, 384-322 B.C.
• the Gauls sack the city of Rome, 394 or 390 B.C.
• Philip II of Macedon conquers Greece, ending local rule, 338-337 B.C.
• Alexander the Great conquers the Persian Empire, 336-323 B.C.
- Hellenistic Period:
• begins with the death of Alexander, 323 B.C.
• Callimachus, c. 305-240 B.C.
• Three Punic Wars are waged between Rome and Carthage, 264-241
B.C., 218-201 B.C., 146 B.C.
• Plautus, Roman playwright, dies, c. 180 B.C.
- Hellenes: Greek speakers from the ancestral home Hellas (around the
Aegean Sea), supposedly the descendants of Hellen
- Hellas: ancestral home of the Greeks (Hellenes) – lay around the Aegean
Sean, roughly the area of the modern Greek nation-state plus the west c