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Lecture 2

CLA230 Lecture 2 Text Notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Dimitri Nakassis

CLA230 Lecture 2 Text Notes Key Terms (Ch. 1) - Attic: from Attica (countryside around Athens) - Bronze Age: • civilization – early Bronze Age begins in Greece with introduction of bronze metallurgy, c. 3000-2000 B.C. • Sumerian cities flourish in Mesopotamia, c. 2800-2340 B.C. • Minoan civilization flourishes on Crete, c. 2500-1200 B.C. • Akkadian Empire in Mesopotamia, c. 2334-2220 B.C. • Sumerian revival, c. 2200-2000 B.C. • civilization – middle Bronze Age begins with the destruction of communities across the Greek mainland, c. 2000-1600 B.C. • old Babylon Empire in Mesopotamia, c. 1900-1550 B.C. • civilization – late Bronze Age (or Mycenaean Age) begins, c. 1600 B.C. • Hittite Empire rules in Anatolia, c. 1700-1200 B.C. • Phoenician syllabic writing appears, c. 1500 B.C. • most likely date for Trojan War, c. 1250-1200 B.C. - Mesopotamia: “the land between rivers”, present day Iraq – Mesopotamian kings claimed they had special relationships with the gods, and unless they interceded, the gods would not smile upon humans - Dark Age: • also called Iron age – begins with the destruction of Mycenaean cities in Greece, c. 1200-1100 B.C. • old order of god-like kings revived in Mesopotamia and Egypt • writing disappeared from Greece – population shrank and was isolated from wider world • emerged from Dark Age in around 800 B.C. • Greek colonies settled in Asia Minor, c. 950-900 B.C. • Greek colonies in Sicily and southern Italy, c. 800-600 B.C. - polis: the city-state, Greek word – way of organizing cities (not kingdoms) after Dark Age - the Greek problem: • fundamental conflict by a set of conditions that Greek thinkers struggled with • what was the relationship between mortals and divine? • Greeks saw their city-states as communities of equal, free males (basis/origin of the concept of citizenship) – refused to believe that gods gave any individual or narrow elite a divine right to rule • most Greeks held the belief that gods were powerful and wise, that the world was full of spirits and ghosts, and that a few oracles and priests could give access to the supernatural (however, access was open to challenge – oracles/priests could not use it to dominate others) - demokratia: theory of equal qualification – male citizens debates and voted on the major issues – “democracy” - Archaic Period: • begins with the invention of Greek alphabet, c. 800 B.C. • The Iliad and The Odyssey, attributed to Homer, are written down, c. 800-750 B.C. • Olympic games begin, 776 B.C. • Rome, allegedly, is founded, 753 B.C. • Hesiod’s Theogony is written down, c. 750-700 B.C. • Homeric Hymns, c. 700-500 B.C. • cyclic poets, c. 650 -500 B.C. • Age of Tyrants, c. 650-500 B.C. • Cyrus the Great of Persia, c. 590-530 B.C. • Xenophanes, c. 570-460 B.C. • Pindar, 518-438 B.C. • Simonides, leter 6 to early 5 century B.C. • alleged date of the expulsion of the Etruscan dynasty at Rome and the foundation of the Rothn Republic, 510 B.C. • Baccylides, early 5 century B.C. • Persians invade Aegean Greece, Battle of Marathon, 490 B.C. • Carthage invades Sicily, Greek victory at Himera, 480 B.C. • Persians invade Aegean Greece again, destruction of Athens, Greek victory at Salamis and Platea, 480-479 B.C. - Classical Period: • begins with the end of the Persian Wars, 480 B.C. • Aeschylus, 525-456 B.C. • Sophocles, 496-406 B.C. • Herodotus, c. 484-420 B.C. • Euripides, 480-406 B.C. • Roman Twelve Tables are committed to writing, 451 B.C. • Socrates, 469-399 B.C. • Peloponnesian War, 431-404 B.C. • Thucydides, c. 460-400 B.C. • Biblical book of Genesis reaches present form, c. 400 B.C. • Plato, 427-437 B.C. • Hippocrates, c. 400 B.C. • Aristotle, 384-322 B.C. • the Gauls sack the city of Rome, 394 or 390 B.C. • Philip II of Macedon conquers Greece, ending local rule, 338-337 B.C. • Alexander the Great conquers the Persian Empire, 336-323 B.C. - Hellenistic Period: • begins with the death of Alexander, 323 B.C. • Callimachus, c. 305-240 B.C. • Three Punic Wars are waged between Rome and Carthage, 264-241 B.C., 218-201 B.C., 146 B.C. • Plautus, Roman playwright, dies, c. 180 B.C. - Hellenes: Greek speakers from the ancestral home Hellas (around the Aegean Sea), supposedly the descendants of Hellen - Hellas: ancestral home of the Greeks (Hellenes) – lay around the Aegean Sean, roughly the area of the modern Greek nation-state plus the west c
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