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Lecture 12

Greek History Lecture 12.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Dimitri Nakassis

Assyrian Empire  Semitic-speaking  Acquired Egypt around 671 BC  Capitol (Ninevah) sacked in 612 BC o Medes and Babylonians  Cyrus conquers Medians in 6 th century  Herodotus says Cyrus and Persians were vassals of the Medes  Cyrus the Great (559-529 BC)  Persians conquer Lydia in 547  Conquer Babylon 549 BC Lydians  Croesus (56-546 BC)  Herodotus states that Croesus, through conquest and alliance, was the first to force political attachments between cities and cultures  “If you attack the Persians a great empire will be destroyed” Persians  Tribute o 20 satrapies  Total tribute 14,560 talents of silver (377 tonnes)  377 million o The Cyrus Cylinder  Marduk “delivered Babylon” to Cyrus because they were not heeding him.  Cyrus presents himself as divinely-chosen. Doesn‟t mean he conquered Babylon BECAUSE his religion  it is a way of justifying rule AFTERWARDS. Doesn‟t necessarily make him a zealot  Ionian Revolt o 498 BC sack of Sardis by Ionians (with Greek help  Athens and Eretria)  Capitol of the local satrapy  Athenians connect themselves ethnically to the Ionians (I. migrated from A.)  Hippias was in Persia and Satrap urged Athenians in 503 to take him back  If Persians take Athens, no more democracy o Leader of revolt against tyrants actually is one of the tyrants o This attack is “WHY” the Persians begin to attack the Athenians o The Battle of Lade (494 BC)  353 Ionian triremes v. 600 Persian ships  Dionysios of Phocaea overworks the Ionians, training them to “break the line” (diekplous)  Probably sailing between two ships and turn to ram them.  Herodotus says diekplous works but they are outnumbered  Samians desert right before the battle begins (60 ships)  Ionians lose o Greek Triremes  Three rows of oars. Long, skinny, fast.  In a fight they don‟t use the sail, they use oars (to control) o Sack of Miletus (494 BC)  Persians take Miletus and enslave women and children and burn
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