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Mark Antony and Cleopatra.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Kevin Wilkinson

Mark Antony and Cleopatra & More Civil War Conflict with the Parthians (42-35 BCE)  Because of the civil war, Romans lost a bit of control of the east  The defeat of Cassius by the Parthians in 57 BCE was not forgotten  Before Caesar died, he was about to campaign in Parthia  After 42 BCE, Antony's activity in the east led up to battling Parthia  The Parthians attacked roman colonies in Syria, and was allied by a roman general  Parthians succeeded in gaining control of Syria in 40 and 39  Antony commanded one of his generals to counter attack  By 38, the Romans reconquered their territories in Syria and Asia  In 37, the Parthians were distracted by civil war. Antony thought that this was his moment to attack.  Antony led a large army into Mesopotamia in 36. He had sixteen legions (60K men). Accompanied by troops from smaller eastern kingdoms (Calvary and infantry)  Marched all the way into the heart of horse Parthian empire, however one of the eastern kingdoms (Armenia), who employed a legion of cavalry abandoned the army and returned to Armenia.  Between the loses inflicted by the Parthians and the harsh climatic conditions, Antony lost about a third of his army. (Maybe 20K men)  Antony's military reputation in rome would never recover from this Antony and Cleopatra (41-34 BCE)  In his course to attempt to regain control troll over the eastern Mediterranean, Antony sought to create an alliance with Ptolemaic Egypt  Capital was setup by the Greek Ptolemaic kingdom in the city of Alexandria  Virtually no mixing of ruling Greek class and poor native Egyptian class.  Ptolemies were worshippd as gods just as the Egyptian pharaohs had been before them  Also adopted the long term tradition of Egyptian artistic representations  In the mid first century BCE, Egypt was the last Greco kingdom that still retained its independence  Ptolemaic Egypt was also very wealthy.  Even if Egypt wasn't under direct roman control, it wasn't entirely free from roman interference. o Ex. Caesar interfered with the royal succession, installing cleopatra as the new ruler  When Caesar was assassinated in 44, cleopatra returned to Egypt from Rome  A couple of years later, Antony sought to make an alliance with cleopatra.  In 41, the two met extensively in Tarssus.  The following year, cleopatra gave birth to a set of twins (Antony's children)  In the year 40, Antony returned to Italy to meet with Octavian. Seal on new agreement was a marriage between Antony and Octavian's sister, Octavia  Antony took Octavia east, and she gave birth a year later in 39 BCE.  In the year 37, Antony returned to italy to meet with Octavian once again. Were planning the final
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