Mark Antony and Cleopatra & More Civil War
Conflict with the Parthians (42-35 BCE)
Because of the civil war, Romans lost a bit of control of the east
The defeat of Cassius by the Parthians in 57 BCE was not forgotten
Before Caesar died, he was about to campaign in Parthia
After 42 BCE, Antony's activity in the east led up to battling Parthia
The Parthians attacked roman colonies in Syria, and was allied by a roman general
Parthians succeeded in gaining control of Syria in 40 and 39
Antony commanded one of his generals to counter attack
By 38, the Romans reconquered their territories in Syria and Asia
In 37, the Parthians were distracted by civil war. Antony thought that this was his moment to attack.
Antony led a large army into Mesopotamia in 36. He had sixteen legions (60K men). Accompanied by
troops from smaller eastern kingdoms (Calvary and infantry)
Marched all the way into the heart of horse Parthian empire, however one of the eastern kingdoms
(Armenia), who employed a legion of cavalry abandoned the army and returned to Armenia.
Between the loses inflicted by the Parthians and the harsh climatic conditions, Antony lost about a third of
his army. (Maybe 20K men)
Antony's military reputation in rome would never recover from this
Antony and Cleopatra (41-34 BCE)
In his course to attempt to regain control troll over the eastern Mediterranean, Antony sought to create an
alliance with Ptolemaic Egypt
Capital was setup by the Greek Ptolemaic kingdom in the city of Alexandria
Virtually no mixing of ruling Greek class and poor native Egyptian class.
Ptolemies were worshippd as gods just as the Egyptian pharaohs had been before them
Also adopted the long term tradition of Egyptian artistic representations
In the mid first century BCE, Egypt was the last Greco kingdom that still retained its independence
Ptolemaic Egypt was also very wealthy.
Even if Egypt wasn't under direct roman control, it wasn't entirely free from roman interference.
o Ex. Caesar interfered with the royal succession, installing cleopatra as the new ruler
When Caesar was assassinated in 44, cleopatra returned to Egypt from Rome
A couple of years later, Antony sought to make an alliance with cleopatra.
In 41, the two met extensively in Tarssus.
The following year, cleopatra gave birth to a set of twins (Antony's children)
In the year 40, Antony returned to Italy to meet with Octavian. Seal on new agreement was a marriage
between Antony and Octavian's sister, Octavia
Antony took Octavia east, and she gave birth a year later in 39 BCE.
In the year 37, Antony returned to italy to meet with Octavian once again. Were planning the final