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Lecture 18

Lecture 18 Antony and Cleopatra

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University of Toronto St. George
Glenn Wilkinson

Lecture 18 (October 28) Mark Antony and Cleopatra 1. Conflict with the Parthians (42-35 B.C.) 2. Antony and Cleopatra (41-35 B.C.) 3. Build-up to civil war (34-32 B.C.) 4. Battle ofActium (31 B.C.) and its immediate aftermath Conflict with Parthians (42-35 B.C.) - After the battle of Philipy,Antony stayed in the East, to fix everything in the east - Since after the civil war Rome lost a lot of hold in the East - Antony rebuilt legions and raised money - Romans never forgot the loss of Crassus – was overshadowed by the civil war - Caesar was setting out when he was assassinated – then another civil war - Antony was preparing to set out - But the Parthians beat him to the punch, attacking Syria andAsia Minor; enlisting the help of a Roman general (in Asia), an ally of Brutus and Cassius, who took his army with him to Parthia - He was conquering Roman land with his Roman army in the name of Parthia - He conquered most of Syria - BecauseAntony had other things to deal with, he told one of his generals to counter this offensive; driving them out ofAsia and Syria - The Roman general was captured and executed in 39 B.C. - The boundaries were re-established, but Roman honour was sullied - 37BC, the Parthians were distracted by civil war,Antony saw an opportunity; he led a large Roman army into Mesopotamia in 36 B.C., 16 legions (~60,000 men); including some from client kingdoms of Rome, cavalry and infantry - Marched into the heart of Parthia,Antony lost its shape;Armenia (client kingdom) had supplied a large contingent of cavalry, it abandoned it position in battle and returned toArmenia, resulting in a disastrous lost,Antony had to organize a retreat; between the harsh climate and enemy attacks, he lost about 20,000 men - Another embarrassing disaster to Parthia;Antony's military reputation would never be the same after this Antony and Cleopatra (41-34 B.C.) - Trying to re-establish Roman control over the East, he set out to gain dominance over the Greek Egyptian kingdoms - There was virtually no mixing between the Greeks and the Egyptians; but the Greek rulers did adopt some traditions of the Pharaohs: like incest, brother sister marrying, worshipped as gods, Egyptian artistic representation - This kingdom was the last independent kingdom, of the Hellenistic kingdoms afterAlexander the Great; taken by Rome or Parthia - Ptolemaic Egypt was very wealthy, surprising that no one tried to capture it already - Though not under Roman control, it was under Roman influence (like when Caesar arranged Cleopatra to take the throne); subject to Roman influence - Cleopatra returned to Egypt after Caesar was assassinated - Antony formed an alliance with Cleopatra (her past connections with Caesar, and her resources) - Can only assume they already met - They met for diplomatic reasons in Tarsis (41 B.C.); it went well,Antony decided to spend the winter with her; the next year Cleopatra gave birth to twins toAntony - Egypt made most of its money by selling produce from their farming of the Nile; but it was also the most successful of the Hellenistic states - 40BC, is when Antony went back to 'meet' Octavian in Brundisium, just afterAntony's brother made an armed attack on Octavian - The seal on their new arrangement was a marriage betweenAntony and Octavia (Octavian's sister) - She came back to Egypt with him and she had his child in 39 B.C. - He had two families, only one child was recognized (that of Octavia) - 37 B.C. – another meeting about the final assault on Pompey Jr., giving Octavian a large number of warships - Returning to the East, without Octavia (leaving her in Italy); did not divorce her, just ran back to Cleopatra, who joined him in Syria, where he was planning a major offensive into Parthia - She was pregnant again in 36 B.C., and gave birth to another one of his children (3) - Octavia also had another one of his children (2) - WhenAntony returned from Parthia he was so angry againstArmenia that he waged war against them in
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