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Lecture 6

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Michel Cottier

Course: Introduction to Roman History Instructor: Michel Cottier 6. Hannibal, the arch enemy Cf. CHAPTER VIII. Sources to read: NONE PLACE NAMES AND OTHER GEOGRAPHICAL DETAILS TO BE ABLE TO LOCALIZE ON A MAP: On map, p. 89 = IMAGE 1: Saguntum (Spanish city); Trebia river and Lake Trasimene (northern Italy); Cannae (south-east Italy); Utica (Carthaginian city in North Africa); Naraggara (North Africa). CHRONOLOGY (*dates to remember): - 229: Death of Hamilcar Barca; his son-in-law, Hasdrubal, replaced him as commander-in-chief in Carthaginian Spain. - *229-228 BC: Illyrian Wars. - *226 BC: The Ebro Treaty. - *225-220: Gallic Wars and conquest of northern Italy. - 221: Hasdrubal is assassinated; Hannibal succeeded him as commander-in-chief in Carthaginian Spain. - *220-219 BC: Illyrian Wars. - 219-218 BC: Siege and capture of Saguntum (an ally of Rome in north-eastern Spain) by Hannibal. - *218-201 BC: Second Punic War. *218 BC (December): Battle at the Trebia river (northern Po valley). A Roman army commanded by the consul Tiberius Sempronius Longus is nearly totally annihilated. The Po valley falls into Hannibal's hands. *217 BC: Battle of Lake Trasimene, near Perusia (modern Perugia). Another Roman army is destroyed and one consul (Gaius Flaminius) is killed. *216 BC: Roman defeat at the battle of Cannae; one of the two consuls present at the battle, Lucius Aemilius Paullus, is killed. 215 BC: Treaty of mutual assistance between Hannibal and Philip V, king of Macedon. *215-205 BC: The First Macedonian War. The Romans with the help of their Greek allies (the Aetolians) fight against the Macedonians. Peace treaty (= 'the Peace of Phoenice') is signed between Philip V and the Romans in 205. 211-209 BC: The Romans recapture southern Italy (capture of Capua in 211 and sack of Tarentum in 209), and Sicily (capture and sack of Syracuse and Agrigentum in 209). 210-206 BC: Conquest of Carthaginian Spain by P. Cornelius Scipio (the future 'Africanus'/'the African'). 207 BC: Battle at the Metaurus river: a Carthaginian army led by Hasdrubal, brother of Hannibal, is defeated by the Romans and Hasdrubal himself is killed. 204 BC: Scipio lands with a Roman army near Utica. *202 BC: Battle of Zama (actually Naraggara). Scipio's troops defeats Hannibal's army. *201 BC: Carthage asks for peace. - 195: Hannibal goes into exile. - 183 or 182 BC: Hannibal poisons himself to escape capture. POINTS TO KEEP IN MIND: - The 'Ebro Treaty' (226 BC): an agreement between the Romans and Hasdrubal, commander-in-chief of the Carthaginians (son-in-law and successor of Hamilcar Barca who died in
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