Course: Introduction to Roman History Instructor: Michel Cottier
6. Hannibal, the arch enemy
Cf. CHAPTER VIII.
Sources to read: NONE
PLACE NAMES AND OTHER GEOGRAPHICAL DETAILS TO BE ABLE TO LOCALIZE ON A MAP:
On map, p. 89 = IMAGE 1: Saguntum (Spanish city); Trebia river and Lake Trasimene (northern Italy); Cannae
(south-east Italy); Utica (Carthaginian city in North Africa); Naraggara (North Africa).
CHRONOLOGY (*dates to remember):
- 229: Death of Hamilcar Barca; his son-in-law, Hasdrubal, replaced him as commander-in-chief in Carthaginian
- *229-228 BC: Illyrian Wars.
- *226 BC: The Ebro Treaty.
- *225-220: Gallic Wars and conquest of northern Italy.
- 221: Hasdrubal is assassinated; Hannibal succeeded him as commander-in-chief in Carthaginian Spain.
- *220-219 BC: Illyrian Wars.
- 219-218 BC: Siege and capture of Saguntum (an ally of Rome in north-eastern Spain) by Hannibal.
- *218-201 BC: Second Punic War.
*218 BC (December): Battle at the Trebia river (northern Po valley). A Roman army commanded by the consul
Tiberius Sempronius Longus is nearly totally annihilated. The Po valley falls into Hannibal's hands.
*217 BC: Battle of Lake Trasimene, near Perusia (modern Perugia). Another Roman army is destroyed and one
consul (Gaius Flaminius) is killed.
*216 BC: Roman defeat at the battle of Cannae; one of the two consuls present at the battle, Lucius Aemilius Paullus,
215 BC: Treaty of mutual assistance between Hannibal and Philip V, king of Macedon.
*215-205 BC: The First Macedonian War.
The Romans with the help of their Greek allies (the Aetolians) fight against the Macedonians. Peace treaty (= 'the
Peace of Phoenice') is signed between Philip V and the Romans in 205.
211-209 BC: The Romans recapture southern Italy (capture of Capua in 211 and sack of Tarentum in 209), and Sicily
(capture and sack of Syracuse and Agrigentum in 209).
210-206 BC: Conquest of Carthaginian Spain by P. Cornelius Scipio (the future 'Africanus'/'the African').
207 BC: Battle at the Metaurus river: a Carthaginian army led by Hasdrubal, brother of Hannibal, is defeated by the
Romans and Hasdrubal himself is killed.
204 BC: Scipio lands with a Roman army near Utica.
*202 BC: Battle of Zama (actually Naraggara). Scipio's troops defeats Hannibal's army.
*201 BC: Carthage asks for peace.
- 195: Hannibal goes into exile.
- 183 or 182 BC: Hannibal poisons himself to escape capture.
POINTS TO KEEP IN MIND: - The 'Ebro Treaty' (226 BC): an agreement between the Romans and Hasdrubal, commander-in-chief of the
Carthaginians (son-in-law and successor of Hamilcar Barca who died in