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Lecture 9

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University of Toronto St. George
Regina Hoeschele

Lecture 9  The Persian War  Defines Greeks as a whole  Paradoxal- defines Greeks as a whole yet various parts of Greece in division were revealed.  Darius + XerXes each polis has to make a decision on them.  Medize sub-group in the Persian empire  Going on to the Meeds/the Persians  Reasonable at the time but would have negative consequences for you after  Major Differences between Athens + Sparta  Sparta  obvious but deliberate form of attack  Persia over land attack  Sparta would drag its enemy to the Peloponnese  break them down in the narrow passage  barricading them.  Athens has to fight them by position  Book 7, Section 139  Herodotus : “If Athens…Persian King”  His view  Athens was the one to save all of Greece (or they would have perished)  Athenians  knew this and used it to their advantage to exploit it when growing th their empire in 5 century.  Athens great military strength its navy!  People who rode the navy  got the most prestige as a result = this brought glory to Athens and the lower class (the demos)  The demos would demand more political sway as a result  History of Persian War- 490-480 BCE ( 490- Darius)  By Herodotus  story line told us a Greek tragedy  Similar to Oedipus (i.e. tragedy)  Narrative Pattern  Appeals to the audience  Gave meaning to the battle facts  i.e. moral narrative  499- Ionian Revolt  West of A.M.  Greek inhabitants but under Persian rule; yet still Greek!  Doesn‟t last long (of course) b/c of Greek pride, values etc. = revolt  Ask for aid  Sparta declines, Athens helps (a kinship present)  Athens burns down Sardis  Result : Darius holds a grudge over the burning on Athens  Marathon (26 miles from Athenian) – Persians invade!  Athenians had never actually seen a person (Athenian view point) but here they are. Athens freaked out.  Asked Sparta for help  They declined- „religious obligation‟ excuse  Thus, Athens decides to defend themselves (recall: ( ) funeral)  Athens out numbered 1000 to 1 (exaggerated but gives idea how large)  Terrified by invasion have no idea what to expect from Persians  Yet Athens drives Persians out!  Only 190 Athenians killed vs. 6400 Persians ( again exaggerated but notice the degree of power)  Athens – idolized the MAROTHONOMAKHOI  Makhos fighter II warrior of the marathons  Athens greatest generation of the time  Freed Athens, freed Greece – best warriors!  Persian outlook  Darius: Simply a show symbolic of the power was (sent a small army not whole empire!)  For Athens: battle of patriotism  Athens won‟t be slaves, bravery etc.  Sparta‟s excuse  A convenient excuse for them.  Number issue not so factual  but scale of Persians compared to Athens is true  Reason why Athens developed such a powerful navy war a result of the Persian invasion.  Athens had sent messenger to consult with Delphi:  Didn‟t like the first message  Second- wooden wall alone will not fail  Wooden wall?  Wooden wall  Themistocles  Politician + theologian  Determine that the wooden wall were fleets!  Convinced Athens to build their fleets through the finding of silver at Laurium  Long Walls  Piracus (Athens port) 12 miles away from Athens.  Liability if one crossed them
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