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Lecture 13

CLA233 Lecture 13 Notes

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Michael J.Dewar

CLA233 Lecture 13 Notes Education - mos maiorum – “the way of the ancestors” - litterator – first level of teaching – teaches the letters – very low pay - grammaticus – teaches the second level of school – teaches grammar and pronunciation - rhetor – teaches the third level of schooling – taught rhetoric and public speaking - education system greatly affected Roman life - early stages of Roman education – no formal education system – done in the home - parents – typically the father – educate the child directly or delegate to slaves - no uniform education A Father’s Teachings - Cato the Elder – “The Censor” – the way he teaches his son - taught his son the typical first levels of schooling - only two of his teachings were literate - teachings more about practicality – very pragmatic approach to schooling – utilitarian – javelin, swimming, etc. - Cato wrote History – in such a way that his son could read it - chaste – equivalent of a parent not swearing in front of children – also a very moral education – History was all about morality - morality – respect for the state, frugality, dignitas, etc. - after parental education stage – child could be apprenticed - poor child – farming apprenticeship, etc. - rich child – military apprenticeship, senator, etc. - not everyone when to school and there were different education styles and amounts of education given - mass illiteracy – Rome was very lenient toward illiteracy – did not have to be literate to function in daily life - very fluid definition of literacy in Roman society - most Roman aristocrats viewed literacy as being able to read and understand literature - however, many also equated literacy to being able to read the large block letters on public monuments and decrees - literacy not necessarily a mark of social class – slaves learning to read was not uncommon – a way to rise in value and one day be freed - education system – for the richer and luckier slaves and freedmen - slaves being educated in literacy was uncommon – perhaps to be tutors for children - main slave education was on how to do work - intellectual education for slaves – to become secretaries, etc. for their master – education was at the discretion of the master School of a Different Sort - some children would not go to school at all, or just have basic teachings for their first few years - either the parents could not afford to pay the fee, or they could not spare their children as extra working hands at home - boy earns his keep by working as an apprentice – father only pays enough to cover the food and clothing costs – payment comes from the hard labour the child provides - unknown if this is the extent of this child’s education - agreement of the terms of teachings to be done A Day at School - by the first century B.C. – more institutionalized schooling - borrowed this idea from the Greeks - three different levels of schooling - most children only went through the first level – basic literacy - for the very richest families – often had private education for the first level and then went to school for the second and third levels - girls went to school as well – this was the extent of the female education other than how to be a good housewife - litterator – first level of teacher – teaches the letters - grammaticus – second level of teacher – grammar - rhetor – teacher for the third level of schooling – orator – rhetoric teacher - pay for the litterator was very low – often had side jobs – needed about thirty students to make enough money to make a living but it was very uncommon for such a large amount of children to go to one school - average school day – began when the sun came up and the slave companion took the child to school and followed the child around - slave companion – idea borrowed from the Greeks - idea that the slave companion would protect the child from harm - pederasty was likely more of a myth or general fear – likely did not happen in practice – slave was there to also protect the chastity of the child as well - idea of adult male teacher and pederasty came from the Greeks – an adult male seeking a younger companion was common in their culture and the Romans greatly feared this occurrence – fear of this happening to their child while at school – as school and literature was originally a Greek practice - unknown if there were holidays during which the children did not attend school - did not go to school in the summer - schools generally took place in open air - funny poem by Martial – children are being loud – offers to pay the teachers the same amount as the parents do so that they will not teach the children – dislikes the disruption that comes from the noise of the children playing and at school - boy talks about his day at school - all male classroom – children of different ages and abilities – attempt by the teacher to teach specifically to the needs of each child - attempt to teach each child and provide work suited to his skill level - not a typical school for poor children – there are even officials to assist in teaching the children - very literature based – in teaching the children poetry, the older boys are the narrators - competition was high for children – school was not seen to be very exciting and therefore “excitement” was provided through competition among the children A Student’s Prayer - school was mainly punishment based – canes - cane – Martial holds out his hands even as an adult to show how he is well education – remembers the ca
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