Cla233 lecture 14 – soldiers
- Function of military as social phenomena, not as defence (in this class).
- Citizen militia, very roman, everybody who could fight and had a stake in society was morally
obliged to do so. Poor people couldn’t afford their own armor (roman state doesn’t provide
these things like shcoiols or armor), so they weren’t in it. Small stipend given to romans (no
professional salary), you were expected to enroll as needed
- From about 100 bc (leadership of gaius) roman army switches to something more professional
and permanent. Still relies on draft and volunteers but more and more relies on volunteers who
make a career of the army. Eventually nin time of augustus overwhelming proportion of soldiers
are professionals, usually serve 20-60 years.
- Roman army becomes step ladder for social kingdom, army gives social structure which
integrates you to roman society. At end of term of service you become a citizen automatically.
Demobilization bonus (usually farmland, then money).
- Soldiers aren’t allowed to married, they are proeffsionals like the vestal virgins (salaried)
A model soldier:
- Lays down original roman ideal of farmer soldier
- First thing is he says im not actualy roman (sabine) but I am loyal to romans, I am poor, got no
dowry from my first cousin (haha). I have two daughters and six sons (future manpower for
- He started in army in 200 bc, passage is in 171 bc. He started at bottom as ordinary legionnaire
(roman allied contingents, made up of allies of romes).maniple is a handful, hasta is a low spear.
Hastate wwre least well equipped, maniple is lowest size of platoon size you can get. This guy
then volunteers to cato the sensor (old fashioned one, also of sabine ancestry) in the Spanish
campaign. Saying that he cheerfully goes when called, and then volunteers immediately after
finishing. (funny because he doesn’t spend time at home where he has a farm to take care of)
- Incredibly rapid promotion, in third campaign he is first centurion (leading centurian of all