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CSC258H1 (46)
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Department
Computer Science
Course
CSC258H1
Professor
Steve Engels
Semester
Winter

Description
SEQUENTIAL CIRCUIT DESIGN  Circuits using flip-flops  Example #1: Shift registers o A series of D flip-flops can store a multi-bit value (such as a 16-bit int) o Data can be shifted into this register 1 bit at a time, over 16 clock cycles o Implementing the register with these special D flip-flops will now maintain values in the register until overwritten by setting EN high  Example 3: Counters o Ex. 4-bit shift register used to store 1011 then 0000 o Consider the T flip-flop  Read from Q3 to Q0  Output is inverted when input T is high o What happens when a series of T flip-fliops are connected together in sequence o More interesting  Connect the output of one flip-flop to the clock input of the next  Example #2: Load registers o This is a 4-bit ripple counter o One can also load a register’s values all at once, by feeding signals to  Which is an example of an asynchronous circuit each flip-flop  Ex. a 4-bit load register  Timing isn’t quite synchronized with the rising clock pulse  Cheap to implement, but unreliable for timing o To control when this register is allowed to load its values, we introduce the D flip-flop with enable o This is a synchronous counter, with a slight delay o Truth table EN D 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1  Could be synchronized even more by having each AND gate 0 1 0 0 combine outputs of all previous flip-flops 0 1
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