CAS350H1 Lecture 8: CAS350 Lecture 8 Neoliberialism

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University of Toronto St. George
Contemporary Asian Studies
Dylan Clark

CAS350 Lecture 8 Neoliberalism • Japan and Korea’s developmental state • 1910-40s: Japanese imperial Japan, early modern highly disciplinary state which modernity as a state project • the developmental state from 1950s-80s are similar o military dictatorship • post-WWII: Fordist regime • 3 countries all phased out of Fordism and into neoliberalism • youth as an object of the developmental state o receiving rewards for loyalty • East Asia: attached to the state • 1950s-70s, Fordist state, youth transitioned into an entrepreneurial positions • developmental state to neoliberal state and impact on young Asians • tend to use neoliberalism as shift from concrete state power to diffuse state of power o state power  market o control to free market o often think that it’s a shift from citizen to the consumer • reciprocity o duties and obligations citizens have vs. consumer ▪ consumers are individual are less beholding to the state and less entitled to rewards from the state ▪ model where state provides, to state doesn’t provide ▪ citizenship o The developmental state of Japan Inc. or Korea ▪ the young ones were expected to sacrifice themselves in school in exchange for a kind of security in life: jobs, education, health care ▪ self-sacrificing incorporate employers ▪ sacrificing for a certain kinds of rewards o China: 1980s-2000s, towards a market economy with iron rice bowl that guarantees employment o 2000s it collapses ▪ today, insecurity and lack of guarantees for better or for worse o self-sacrifice still exist, young people are still encouraged to sacrifice themselves • Speculative o no guarantee of employee o investing in yourself with a chance that you might have it • Developmental state  neoliberal state o Is the school a private good or public service? o What does the state owe? o massive state to a state that is asking people to invest in themselves Foucault: Governmentality • transition in a modern regime from a state that governs like imperial Japan and Korea • asking us to see in a later modern state are shifted towards internalize state where we ourselves are to improve ourselves • less that the corporation is transforming these citizens, but we in neoliberalism have that government in our minds • we become the internalize institutions • invest in ourselves • the ethics of a subject of a changing moral community • moral community in which the individual is engaged in increasing forms of reciprocity with the state o state, PM are father figures of the country o imagined direct systems • “Freedom” o free individuals who are free of the state but it’s not always secure o celebration of freedom = also free to fail • transition in reciprocity from the state to corporations o corporations = givers • Precarity o class of people, esp. in Japan o part of neoliberalism o subjective quality in neoliberal o Is it a failure or failure by design? • Are the insecure young unemployed Chinese, Koreans, Japan unemployed by failure/design or by success as well? • Locus pg.383 o reviewing aspects of developmental state o Fordism ▪ pays workers well and rewards them for loyalty ▪ characterize by high rates of employment, high productivity and consumer base which absorb that production ▪ employees starts buying what is being made ▪ positive feedback loop ▪ people get
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