Foodways 1: sugar

4 Pages

Diaspora and Transnational Studies
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Kevin Lewis O' Neill

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DTS200 Lecture #3 January 22, 2013 - What do you know about sugar? o In the reading sugar use to be known as a spice and a luxury, motive for slave trade, produced from sugar cane (not always the case), addictive, Foodways 1: sugar - How we can use food to understand diaspora, transnationalism - Food system components in large-scale agrarian societies o The food core-legume-fringe hypothesis  Core= One or more complex carbohydrates for calories- wheat, maize, barley, millet potatoes, yam, etc...  According to food scholars they have come understand that all food systems in the world, whether western African, Caribbean, are constructed around core, legume, and fringe.  They suggest every culture always has a basic core o Ex: Italians- pasta  Legume= accompanying legumes for protein- soybeans, chickpeas, lentils, black- eyed beans, groundnuts, etc. Meats and fish were used as a supplementary proteins when they would be found  Meat was typically eaten by the elite classes; therefore this model applies to the agricultural cultures. o Ex: agrarian societies  The poor would eat legumes throughout the year and then eat meat during Christmas.  Meat is reduced to a ritual function  Fringe= a fringe of flavours and enhancers. These are either nutritive and/or simply aid in the consumption of the large quantities of the core carbohydrates- animal protein, sugar, salt, mustard, miso, wine, soy sauce, teas, pickles and all manner of spices  The enhances are there to aid people in eating more carbohydrates as possible  This third system may seem to be the least important but it is actually the most important because the core cannot be consumed without the enhancer.  Once you think in terms of this hypothesis you can take it into many directions  Ex: famine- means they are not having enough core carbohydrates  The basic diets in agrarian societies were traditionally low in animal proteins, even though the upper classes were always likely to be consumers of meat  The theory has to be qualified for predominantly hunter-gatherer pastoral, or fishing societies.  When you enter any community you can tell the hierarchies within the communities in relation to who eats what.  Who eats legumes compared to who eats more meat.  In terms of food systems this core-legume-fringe hypothesis is the most common. - Food systems o Elements of a food system  Food, nutrition, health, agriculture and national or community development  Processes and infrastructure: growing, harvesting, transport, consumption and disposal  Bio fuel foot print added to the food: when the food is transported from far away.  Environmental dimensions of food systems  Political, social and economic contexts. o Types of food systems  Local food systems- ex: farmers markets  Fewer bio—fuel miles  Industrial food systems- ex: metro, Loblaw’s, MacDonald’s...  Ex: banana: not grown in canada its process to get here is huge  Slavery provided the grounds for this system  Alternative food systems- ex: organic foods; fair trade - Key scholarly debates concerning food systems o The food sector and its potential for regional economic development o How to include local processors and merchants in the supple chains linking farmers to consumers o 3. The impact of long distance trade on the links between sustainable agriculture, climate change and fossil fuels o 4. Food and the labor market: migrant labor, seasonal labor, labor trafficking o 5.the dependency of local food cultures on global networks o 6. Food security/ food and security o 7. Food systems and international trade o 8. Supermarkets and their purchasing strategies  Ex: tomato industry- dependent on seasonal labor which tends to be smuggled.  How do these supermarkets get there foods? Do they known how it is grown and by whom? - Colonialism and the industrial food system o The industrial food system was a direct off-shoot of empire and colonialism and depended on
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