Lecture 2 - How to Become an Emperor.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
East Asian Studies
Thomas Keirstead

EAS245H Lecture 2 SEPT19/2012 How to Become an Emperor Tenno (てんのう) - Usually translated as “emperor” which emphasizes a Chinese model  Also implies centralized state, military conquest - More literally translated as “Heavenly Sovereign”  Sacred aspect prominent  Realm segmented rather than subjugated th - Japanese emperorship developed by the end of the 7 c.  emperors are involved with sacred rituals  Quasi-religious functions/authority rather than “real” power  emperors are not looked upon for political or military authority (symbolically the head of state that possesses religious authority) th - Modern emperorship in the late 19 c., drew upon European models/monarchy  Covering that it was modeled upon European monarchy by giving it a single, unbroken dynasty From Great King to Heavenly Sovereign - Steps toward Tennō (i) Ritual-Military ruling pair (3-4 c.)  Kofun Culture (ii) Military Great Kings (5 c.)  大王 (おおきみ) o Ruled areas much larger than predecessors o At the end of the century, “5 Kings of Wa”  coalescing power? (iii) Routinizing charisma/institutionalizing authority (6-7 c.) th (iv) Heavenly Sovereign (i. 7 c.) Recall: Japanese Pre-history Pre-historic Periodization (1) Jomon (10, 000 BC – 300 BC)  hunter-gatherer (2) Yayoi (300 BC – 250 AD)  more settled, agriculturalists, more advance ceramics; Yoshinogari – reconstructed Yayoi settlement in northern Kyushu; Found in the 18 c., a gold seal that was possibly received by a Yoshinogari ruler from a Chinese emperor  “King of Na of Wa of Han” (3) Kofun Culture (250 – 500 AD)  settled, states/politics How to become an emperor (1) Subdue your rivals  Ritual/Military ruling pairs (3 -5 c.) o Attested to by evidence from: (i) Archaeology (ii) Chinese sources (iii) examples from the Kojiki st st  Yamato Takeru and Emperor Jinmu  Jinmu is the 1 offspring of the gods, the 1 human emperor mythically; Takeru his servant?  consolidation of state of Yamato as it conquer and subdue its rivals o Five Kings of Wa (5 c.) th  The ruling pairs give way to more explicitly military rulers in 5 c. o Intensificat
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