Systematic Botany - James Eckenwalder
January 29, 2013
• Grey chloroplasts are cyanelles. They have two whiplash flagella like the green lineage. They
only have chlorophyll A. Like red and Cyanobacteria, they have phycobilisomes as secondary
light harvesting mechanisms.
• Red, greens and greys are the true plants and they have primary endosymbiosis. They are
treated as Archaeplastida.
Brown is still existing because the host eukaryotic cells represent a separate thing. There are
some browns that are sister to the true plant (Archaeplastida), and there are some that are sister to
those two together (separate lineage/branch)
• Secondary plants are Euglenophyle (euglenas) and are a separate branch.
• Bikonts (two flagella) and unikonts are completely separate branches of eukaryotes. Unikonts
are where all the animals and fungi are.
• Browns are still fragmented but they still retain similar characteristics.
History of Taxonomy
• Apothecaries (2nd-15th Century/Middle Ages) - accounts of plants were entirely about
medicinal plants. Folk biological classification systems remained the same. Illustrations that
accompanied the book was getting lousier. They tended to take the folk biological classification
system to fit their plant. They added and modified words to the folk generic name. This lead to
the proliferation of polynomials. The treatment of plants in books was no longer like folk
biological classifications. Albertus Magnus was an important worker. His work was more
original and had more substance.
• Herbalists (16th Century/Renaissance) - a lot of classical texts were being translated. New texts
were being discovered that were once perserved in Africa, Islam, etc. Beginning of European
exploration. There was a lot of merchants and a lot of patronage. There were new illustrative
paintings. None of them were described previously. They still applied polynomials to these
plants. Most started with a primary term that was according to the folk generics. None Of these
works attempted to undertake a classification of these plants.
• Otto Brunfels - Brunfelsia
• Leonard Fuchs - Fuchsia
• Matthias de l'Obel
• John Gerard - Agalinus
• Charles l'Ecluse - Clusiaceae
By making good illustrations, the period of scientific taxonomy had this as a scientific
foundation. The 17th Century was when group classifications arose, based on the structures of
plants themselves. After the discovery of sex in plants, the structures of plants took pre