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ENG252Y1 - Lecture #4.docx

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Vikki Visvis

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ENG252Y1 – LECTURE NOTES September 30, 2013:  can be read as two goals: resisting culture, in particularly mechanisms of colonial power and reclaiming native culture  relies on narrative storytelling techniques, language  king is aware that native culture has been borrowed illegitimately  reclamation of culture is a theme  the need to preserve native traditions and rituals Fort Marion:  the end of the four parts concludes with four characters that are disguised women and are forced back to Fort Marion  why does king focus on this incident and use it centrality, intertextually for his novel?  19th century, natives and tribes are displaced into reservations  some tribes left the reserves and fought to protect the buffalo  they protested the killing buffalo and preserve their culture and protested the limited land for them; they were trying to survive as a people  in response, Europeans tried to catch them  natives tried to run away but surrendered due to exhaustion and starvation; the 72 of them were charged with crimes against white people and civilization  some were sent back to reserves, others went to prison in Florida via chained to wagons  were in 17th century old Spanish fort  King constantly alludes to this journey and what happened in Fort Marion  prisoners drew in prison  Pratt, their guard, thought to rehabilitate them - taught them to read and write, gave them religious teachings and gave them money to sell their goods and art, gave them art materials to not be bored  the art shows their experiences in prison = plain Indian art ledger  black hawk ledger shows the cultural way of life  pg 19 = Alberta teaches this history to her students, and no students are really interested  pg 21 "what happened to them" Helen asks Alberta, is left unanswered; they're overlooking the main idea, their fate  novel circles back to their fate; as readers, we can't overlook it  in part one = first woman and Ahdam are put in a train to Florida  pg 99 = chains are on their legs, clear reference to history; they sit around and draw pictures; Ahdam loves having people (pg 100) watch him draw, first woman refuses to stay imprisoned, described as the Lone Ranger, she disguises herself and strolls out of prison  the four women disguise themselves and use fictional white guy names for themselves: Lone Ranger, Robinson Crusoe, Hawkeye, Ishmael (all have sidekicks); all four men have been paired with indigenous partners  there is an inversion; king is subversively reclaiming name of settlers; natives appropriating Europeans, inverse of the power hierarchy and structure; to reclaim their power from the settlers  all the women in the four parts = part of the cycle of life = first woman, changing, thought and old  in part two = changing woman (pg 225); is dragged by settlers and she sees natives drawing; another reference  in part three = those who arrest though woman have flowers in their head  in part four = military put protagonist in Fort Marion  repeated emphasis of this event portrays that natives are always having the same conclusion; rigged game of monopoly; kings argues that natives are always going to be on the losing side  may have chosen this incident because it focuses on native representation; helps with the novel; addresses native dissemination of tribal life; ledger art gave the natives a way to describe their life in their own terms  the novel comes back to this theme again and again  by adopting this incident, king places himself as a contemporary native ledger artist, what artists did then is the same as he's doing now in the novel  we can read it as a ledger art and is expresses the same thing = resists European and reclaims native culture  ledger books helped with colonialism, a tool for colonization used for commerce and recording, supposed to be used vertically  natives used the ledger by turning it horizontally, literally and figuratively writing over narratives; asserts the narrative experience and asserts the natives' cultures  King’s novel can be read as a ledger book, to represent natives in their own terms Resisting motifs:  subverts or reverts colonial discourse / white dominance  how white power has dismembered other cultures o the map motif = a tool of colonization  Canadians are tempted to see themselves not as the aggressors, but in truth they are both colonized and colonizers  technology for colonizing vast space  cartographic representation is a crucial process of colonization; map allows to visualize ownership, take what Europeans felt were theirs  map-making is a metaphor for appropriating land illegitimately during the time  an act of imperialism, they named the land and so they owned it  pg 267-70 = draws attention of colonizing power in the maps and undercuts their authority  Bill Burson's map = 128 = doubted that Lionel understood...being in control = then he watches his favourite western in his TV map where John Wayne kills the native warriors; this shows that the m
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