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FCS195H1 (30)

New Century, New Movements

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Corina Sandu

NEW CENTURY NEW MOVEMENTSthe Third Republic was the longestlasting political rgime since the French Revolution and as such would last into the new century and in fact all the way up to the beginning of the Vichy government in France 1940WORLD WAR I 19141918known at the time as the war to end all wars World War I was a military conflict of a scale and an intensity never known in history up to that pointit caused more deaths and more destruction that any previous war involving more than 60 million soldiersduring the four years of the war almost ten million people died and another 20 million survived but bore the traces of injury and mutilationother events around the same timethe Armenian genocide 19151916 the first battle of the Atlantic 1917 the Russian Revolution 1917 and a flu pandemic in 1918 added to the enormous stress of the period and left lasting scars both physical and mental on a great deal of Europes populationthe war brought major geopolitical changes in its wake which in their turn brought further modifications to the face of Europe during the th20 centuryclearly the internationalization of literary and artistic movements is a consequence of the growing internationalization in world politics at the timethe spark which set off the conflict happened on June 28 1914 when the heir to the AustroHungarian throne archduke FranzFerdinand was assassinated by Bosnian Serbstwo major alliances dominated 1the TripleEntente or Triple Alliance composed of France Great Britain and Russia as well as the extensive empires which each controlled2the Central Imperial Alliance first composed of Germany and the AustroHungarian empire and their dependenciesthis alliance was strengthened when the Ottoman Empire joined them on October 1914 followed a year later by the Bulgarian Empireby the end of the war only the Netherlands Switzerland SpainScandinavia and Monaco remained officially neutralmost of the major battles of the First World War took place in Europethe Western front was characterized by a huge network of trenches and fortifications set up by the opposing sides and separated by an area called no mans landthese fortifications stretched for more than 600 kilometers and introduced a new form of warfaretrench warfareon the Eastern front the enormous geographical scope and lack of transportation infrastructure did not lend themselves to this sort of warfare but the fighting was just as intense with major conflicts in the Balkans the Middle East and in Italyin France at this time Jean Jaurs 18591914 was the head of a socialist government and was expressing strong antiwar sentimentson July 31 1914 however Jaurs was assassinated by Raoul Villain a fervent rightwing nationalistthe assassination of Jaurs had the effect of unifying the leftist government forces which up until this time had been badly fragmentedhowever in spite of leftwing initiatives towards peace France entered the warin the early days of the war the German troops attempted to swing through northern France but they were stopped at the Marne riverwhen in 1917 Germany signed a peace agreement with Russia treaty of BrestLitovsk the Germans were free to concentrate their offensive on Francehowever in spite of five major attacks MarchJuly 1918 the Germans were unable to prevail with the European forces being propped up by American troops when the United States entered the war in 1917it was Georges Clemenceau nicknamed The Tiger who led France to victory in 19171918seconded by Ptain and Foch he succeeded in getting the better of the German forces and pushing the battle front back almost 150 kilometersat this the exhausted Germans capitulated and signed the armistice on November 11 1918 Remembrance Day
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