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Lecture # 2 - Solar Radiation Includes compressed version of the solar radiation lecture, with definitions.

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University of Toronto St. George
Sarah Finkelstein

Solar Radiation//Christopherson, Chp.2 Goals to learn this lecture: -What is electromagnetic radiation? -What are the patterns of receipt of solar radiation on Earth? -What are seasons and why do we have them? Why it’s important: solar radiation drives physical systems and the biosphere abbreviations used in document: ‘sorad’ = solar radiation; ‘bill.’ = ‘billion’; ‘amnt’ = ‘amount. Others should be self-explanatory I hope. Earth-Sun relationships are critical to how Earth systems behave -Revolution and Rotation = 2 very distinct characteristic of Earth >Revolution: Earth orbits annually around sun in an ellipse (1 complete revolution/year) >Rotation: Earth rotates eastwards daily on own axis, which gives day and night aphelion and perihelion: related to certain distances of Earth from Sun at diff. times th aphelion. = July 4 /Summer: Earth at its farthest from Sun at this point in revolution perihelion. = January 3 /Winter: Earth at its closest to Sun at this point in revolution >Aphelion and perihelion raise questions against misconceptions about proximity to Sun equitable with seasonality, since further we are, it’s summer, whereas closer we are, it’s winter. The Sun -typical of one of several 100 bill. stars in Milky Way Galaxy -6000K @ surface -Enormous mass @ high temp. & pressure  nuclear fusion -Sun emits charged particles which give phenomena such as solar wind, short-wave radiation >emits , at surface, high energy radiation travelling at speed of light Radiation -energy transmitted as waves of electric and magnetic oscillations -ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION is emitted by all matter with a temp. above absolute 0/ 0K -radiation intensity emitted depends on the temp. of the object: Stefan-Boltzmann law Q proportional to T^4 -Wavelength of radiation inversely related to surface temp (hotter = shorter wavelengths) >wavelength is distance ‘twixt two adjacent peaks. Why human beings don’t glow...  -comfy human skin temp ~ 33Cs -Avg. Human surface area ~ 1.8m^2 -895 watts emitted (1 watt = 1 joule/s)PWR = energy emitted per unit time. Watt= unit of PWR. -This is similar to 9 household light bulbs -Radiation is in the thermal infrared part of the spectrum (heat) not visib
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