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GGR 222 Reading Questions.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
James Nughent

GGR 222 Reading Questions y Reading QuestionsLec 3 Here are the reading reflection questions for Lec 31 What is nature Nature is a concept which signifies some kind of natural world independent of humansIt is a social construct however as it is the product of social conditions which shape the idea one which varies in different contextsIt can also be a concept to signify some kind of normalized behavior or idea only considered natural because of its relativity to some dominant group or idea2Why is nature considered a contested concept How does Nature and Wilderness relate to questions of power eg in terms of gender race and class Ideas of nature today have been shaped by assumptions which become unquestioned historical narrativesIt has been shaped by Western European ideas and a colonial legacy which ignored many other ideas and realities regarding what nature and wilderness might signifyNarrative actors given moral characteristicsReading QuestionsLec 4 1How does John Lockes theory of property put forward a particular environmental ethic What for example would it suggest is the proper use fr a tract of uncut old growth forest Lockes environmental ethic is anthropocentric and utilitarian through the relationship it establishes between an individual and propertyAn individuals body and their labour constitute their property as well as any nature they transform through their labourThe value of any part of nature is determined solely by its usefulness to humans Through this ethic a tract of forest would be most valuable if harvested as lumber rather than left standing as any ecosystem service it performs is valueless while its transformation to lumber through human labour would imbue it with value and make it the loggers property2The famous debate between Pinchot and Muir over Hetch Hetchy Valley marked a split between conservationists and preservationistsSummarize the debate around an explanation of these two terms ConservationThe management of a resoure or system to sustain its productivity over time typically associated with scientific management of collective goods like fisheries or forests Pinchot PreservationThe management of a resource or environment for protection and preservation typically for its own sake as in wilderness preservationMuir Hetch Hetchy Valley was proposed to be dammed and its reservoir used to provide water for San FransiscoConservationist Pinchot saw this as appropriate as it was not being done undue harm and its damming would benefit humansPreservationist Muir thought the area should be protected from human intervention the preservation of its natural state being of greater import than human progress 3Explain the deep in deep ecologyWhat does it mean to say that deep ecology espouses an ecocentric ethics Deep Ecology is a philosophy of environmental ethics that distances itself from shallow or mainstream environmentalism by arguing for a deeper and supposedly more truly ecologically
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