Urb Lec 4
What factors are important when we define a global city?
“A complex combination of economic, political, and cultural changes that have
long been evident but that have accelerated markedly since about 1980,
bringing about a seemingly ever-increasing connectedness of both people and
places.” (Norton, 2010)
- Diversity, well-connected, stock-exchange, recognized foreign currency,
As technology increases our relationship with spaces changes, globalization is
a new concept - is about increasing connectedness with places and connecting
economic, political and cultural activities, facilitated by the movement of people
and technology. Makes it possible to trade ideas and products.
Extent of spatial connectedness increased and scale of intensity has changed
(making it a new concept - as now everybody can connect to the world, not just
the major powers/explorers)
Globalization and Geography
- Global capital/investment can be traded/exchanged across cities
- Do not use globalization as an agent, it is a process.
- Geographers think of the global as a scale
- Globalization as the process
- Processes of change are affected by nations and regions interacting on the
world stage as well as companies and activists
-Increasing connectedness of economies
- Freer movement of capital/trade
- Increasing connectedness of firms (Multi-national corporations (MNCs))
- New trade agreements remove previously protecting barriers
- National sovereignty is diminished in the face of ‘free-flowing capital’ How is this created? - Presence of MNC allows to incorporate other countries
into global economy, reinforcing centralized control in global economy.
Controlled by larger countries, emergence of trade agreements, relieving barries
of trading. Country would benefit from taxes from the ownership of that
corporation - Mnc's are usually privately owned.
Dimishing state power in favour of free flowing capital, progress of global
economy causes countries to lose or limit their abilities in controlling the
country. e.g. Canada can't combat the presence of obesity caused by MNC
Junk/fast food companies.
- As barriers are broken down, are cultures becoming heterogeneous or
- Ties between the economic and the cultural are increasing
- MNCs are increasingly influencing cultural practices
- Food, clothing, leisure
- Cultures becoming heterogenous, gain from places where we never could
extract global goods from.
- Cultures becoming homogenous, being watered down by Western cultures,
Economy is about producing cultural goods for mass consumption.
- Spread of political networks, democratic political systems normalized,
communist systems being integrated in world markets/capitalist markets -
- If you let the market have services available then people will benefit more
rather than the government intervene.
- Fall of Berlin Wall
- China and Russia’s integration to world market
- Rise of neo-liberal politics and policies
- Margaret Thatcher in the United Kingdom
- Ronald Reagan in the United States Globalization and Cities
Breakdown of cities that exist because of their global connections.
Imperial Cities> Colonized cities - controlled - Political
Primate Cities> Disproportionately large city relative to other cities in that
country. Central/significant - Political
Mega Cities> Have at leat 10 million people - Demographic
Great Industrial Cities> Historically industrial cities/ hub of production -
Millionaire Cities> larger portion of millionaires in comparison to other cities -
Global Capitalist Cities> Draw on the economies of newly industrializing cities,
benefiting from international division of labour. - Economic
International Financial Centres> Linked to other financial centres - Economic
World Cities> Functional Economic and Political Systems Approach
Global Cities> Functional Economic and Political Systems Approach
Defining the World cities
1. Cosmopolitan characteristics and multinational corporate economies (Patrick
Geddes, Peter Hall)
- Politics; trade; communications; finance; education; culture and technology
- City itself as a world city has a hi