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School
University of Toronto St. George
Department
Geography
Course
GGR124H1
Professor
Dr.Silvia D' Addario
Semester
Fall

Description
Urb Lec 8 Race and Racialization Marker of difference based on phenotypical colours. System of classification based on these differences with value judgements based on social, economic, political and cultural ideologies. Binary relationship with whiteness at the centre and everything else revolves around it. Oncephysical differences between races are created, we then create these moral value class judments to these difference. Our assumptions of these differences become solidified discursively and structurally solidified. Naturalness of race is reproduced: Discursively and structurally: Policies, Practices in law are created so exclude certain groups. For example, the education system, post-secondary is available to a few. Structures and institutions maintain socioeconomic differences within groups, naturalizes exclusion and indirectly influences it. Resurfaces in new guises: - Homeland indirectly enforces xenophobia and Islamaphobia. - Scarcity of resources, never direct about foreigners...through the media the reccession, unemployment and scarce resources are discussed and implied blame goes to immigrants. Implies the impossibility of harmonious adaptation. Survives when reproduced through acts of exclusion and marginalization > especially in locally situated contexts. Seen heavily in thr media, by creating relationships between race, crime and socioeconomic behaviours naturalizes racial stereotypes. Everyday Racism - People who experience racism on a daily basis are meant to feel that it's a comment and doesn't appear to be overt. Ethnicity - Different to race because it's about the individuals origin not physical features. - Define somebody'ls identity, differentiate ourselves from other people based on real or perceived origin. - Often leads to inclusion or it can exclude. - Ethnicity is a primortal association, however, one is free to leave their ethnicity. -Ethnic origin/identity can change based on your location,British, English, European or White. - Race is more static. Race and Space - Cities mirror assumptions of race, through the presence of exclusionary communities. These are all spatial manifestations of how cities understand differences. Urban Segregation Popularized by the Chicago School, difference in groups and species began to produce segregated communities. Differentiation from a dominant group based on: race, ethnicity and class. Refers to: - Process of social differentiation - The resulting spatial patterns - Ethnic communities, gated communities and ghettos. Groups will seperate based on - social class Multicultural policies that promote the preservation of cultures, congregating various communities - Cultural Cohesion Social Distance Social distance The perceived difference between groups Based on perceived divisions of ethnicity and race. Social distance is achieved voluntarily and involuntarily Varies among places and over time. Identified as a spectrum: Integrated< Social Interaction>Isolated. Based on Skin colour, religion, place of birth, language and other characteristics. Spatial Assimilation Expecting people to be the same is problematic. Spatialized form of assimilation, as new immigrants become more similar to others they can leave low income areas and move out to high income areas. Assumptions: - Taken for granted desire for homogeneity - Residents concentrate spatially - Children and grandchildren have diminishing ethnic identification, so spatial concentration will disperse and disappear. - Racialized groups will never be part of the dominant group, would always be segregated because of these naturalized differences. Spatial Assimilation Assumptions that difference is perceived as a problem while sameness is constructed as normal. There are expectations of assimilation. These assumptions are problematic. When you have an ideology of assimilation then there is always a spatial form for that. When people come to a country and they are new they have limited resources.As they become more similar to everybody else they too can leave low income areas in the city and be able to live in upper middle class areas outside of the city. This was the dominant ideology for many years in North America. There are a number of problems: - taken for granted idea of homogeneity. That everyone has to be like the white-Anglo community -Assumes people don’t want to be segregated. There are a ton of segregation in Canada. -Assumes subsequent generation will no longer be racialized as long as they act in accordance with dominant behaviours. - Racialized groups: when you're racialized you are never going to be a part of a dominant group. Segregation is imposed. For most racialized groups it is not a choice. It takes place because of most of our unconscious racialization of groups. Instead of segregation being helpful it creates disadvantage in society. Increases poverty, unemployment, limited access to services. You are part of a marginalized group. These are outcomes of being a part of this group. Enclaves: - Often voluntary. Ex. Little Italy, Chinatown. - Homogenous. Similar groups live in these areas - Central in the city slowly moving out to the suburbs - Often dispersal and relocation Ghettos: - Often involuntary. - Homogenous. Similar groups live in these areas. - Central city. - Persistence: a cycle of deprivation. Future generation will live there. Slums: Used to describe a low-income settlement in poor living conditions in a urban area. UN characteristics: - Visible manifestations of social poverty in the developing world. It's not a coincidence that people living in slums are also in developing world. - Lack of basic services: education, health care, social benefits - Substandard housing. Overcrowding, lack of resources to keep-up housing has led to slums - Highly dense, overcrowding. Often living in small conditions with great numbers of people. - Unhealthy living conditions and decrease in quality of life. - Tenure is insecure because of the deterioration of the housing. - Poverty and social exclusion Slum Formation - Urban migration: the movement of mass numbers of people from rural to urban areas because of the promise of economic opportunities. However there are only a certain number of opportunities. - Urban poverty: increase in population also increases the informal labour market which puts people at risk for greater poverty.
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