LECTURE #3: Tuesday 28 th September 2010
Society has become completely urbanized. (Lefebvre, 1970)
What might this mean?
1. Possible answers: A dramatic expansion of the global urban population.
2. A worldwide transformation of social, cultural and economic life organized by
1. GLOBAL URBANIZATION
Between 1980 and 2000 the number of city dwellers in the world grew by 1.1
Urban populations are growing at twice the rate of the global population in
As of 2007 more than half the worlds population lives in cities, with much
of the developed world almost entirely urbanized.
Explosive growth of urban slums - housing as many as 600 million people
Cities of the Global South make up 80% of worlds urban population.
*Caution: different measures of urban. In Canada, Australia: settlements of
However, in Italy and Jordan, population of 5000+, and Japan: settlements of
Some of the world's largest cities 2010: Tokyo, Japan. Delhi, India. Sao Paulo,
Brazil. Mumbai (Bombay) India.
China's urban population soared from 70 million in 1952 to 540 million in 2004.
Every 8.5 million peasants move to cities.
Britain has five urban centres of more than a million people. China has 90.
Remains hard to define - globalizations dirty little secret. (Bunting & Rutherford
growth of transnational corporations and off-shoring
industrialization of the global south
growing power of supranational financial institutions
changing international division of labour
rise of high-tech, bio-tech, new media, and other industries
increased mobility of capital
organization of production and markets at a global scale
changing communications and transportation technologies POLITICAL GLOBALIZATION
The 'hollowing out' of nation-states
Rise of supranational governing bodies
Growing political power of cities
'Post-national citizenship' and the formation of transnational elites ('flexible
Supranational trade agreements and de-democratization'.
Different mobility of capital and labour. For example, the evolution of the
container. Makes transport of goods faster , cheaper, and easier.
Rise of new media and communications technologies.
Movement of ideas, styles, music, film across borders.
Death of distance and time-space compression.
Decline of national identity and rise of regional, religous, linguistic, and other
kinds of affinities.
Cities are not just growing, they are also key actors in globalization.
The emerging global system relies on a network of urban places.
A formally national urban system is becoming global.
This is changing the relationship between cities, as well as the role of cities in a
It is also changing the internal social and spatial organization of cities. Two
aspects of a given city needs to be considered in order to understand its position
within these networks.
The role of a city in global networks
the scale of its spatial dominance (regional, national,global)
National states still paly an important, (although reformed), role.
Growth of primary cluster of high-level business service: finance, management,
accounting, legal services, higher education, telecommunications, research
Growth of secondary cluster of employment which serves the first: real estate,
construction, hotels, restaurants, luxury retail, private security, entertainment
Growth of third employment cluster in international tourism and hospitality
Growth of these three clusters taking place at the expense of manufacturing
employment (4 cluster) (some clustering of manufacturing in world cities,
particularly on the periphery, to take advantage of low wage, mostly migrant
Government services constitute a 5th cluster and serve to build, regulate, and
reproduce the world city (planning, transportation, education, policing, etc)
Growth of informal economies, precarious work, and chronic unemployment
Growing social polarization following occupation restructuring (the decline
of the middle class) Political, economic, and cultural dominance of professionals and technocrats
that constitute the 1st and 2nd employment sectors
Growth of a chronically underemployed surplus population, particularly new
Growing social conflicts, often along the lines of race, in response to this
Increased reliance on police to manage social life
Decline in public investment in social welfare in the name of competitiveness
Growth of prisons that house former industrial labourers
Rapid growth of world city populations fueled by international immigration and
Physical growth of cities to unprecedented size (L.A. as a functional unit with a
radius of over 100km)
Gentrification of formerly industrial areas, downtowns, and waterfronts, and
displacement of poorer populations to the declining inner suburbs
Growth of warehousing space to support global supply chains
Spatial polarization deepens alongside social polarization with dramatic gaps in
access to and quality of housing, parks, transit (ghettos and citadels)
Planning and urban design decisions made in the interests of competitiveness
Privatization of public services and public space with increasing reliance on
CCTV and other forms of surveillance and security
Supranational trade agreements displace authority of municipal governments to
about service provision
Rise of new urban social movements.
CANADIAN GLOBAL CITIES?
Poor competitive position
Canada is the only G7 country without an Alpha World City. Alpha cities are
cities like New York, Paris, Frankfurt, Tokyo, in other words, the dominant players
in the urban economic global picture Toronto is not on the radar screen of
foreign investors.. (From Communities in an urban century Federation of
Canadian Municipalities, 2006.)
LECTURE #4: Tuesday 5 thOctober 2010
Working life in the 'Post industrial' City.
Mentorship program: If interested in enrolling as mentees:
OR [email protected]
Todays lecture about work. How has it changed? When did it change?
Where? 'POST-INDUSTRIAL UBANISM?
1. De-industrialization and the movement of production.
the urban landscape
2. The New economy and precarious work
growth of the service sector
Expansions of knowledge intensive occupations
3. The post-industrial urban landscape
Gentrification and segregation
Changing aesthetic norms and forms.
City has become repulsive and heavily polluted.
Stops focusing on statistical analysis, and starts describing physical attributes of
'the very turmoil of the streets has something repulsive, something against
which human nature rebels' (Engels, 1845:56)
FROM THE STEEL BELT.....
Traditional industrial heartland steel, auto, machinery, consumer durables (5
core states: Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin)
Consolidated as a distinct region in the area of water transport.
Railroad development after 1860s helped to integrate the region.
For most of the 20 Century, this region was the core of the US industrial
It would be hard to identify today due to the rapid decline. Steel belt is around
detriot, south of ON and US States.
TO THE RUST BELT....
Massive job loss during the late 1970s through the 1980s as production moved
offshore and to the southwest.
Between 1979-1986, five states lost 990,000 (or 20%) manufacturing jobs.
Rise of 'spatial mismatch' in cities. Movement of production only to the suburbs.
THE NEW SOUTH
Tremendous growth in manufacturing in the south during the late 1970s and
Growth of research and design, telecommunications and other defence related
high technology industries (directly related to defence contracts)
New weapons: high tech production.