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GGR124H1 (189)
Lecture 3

These are all my lecture notes from lecture 3 till the very end of the semester.

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Deborah Cowen

LECTURE #3: Tuesday 28 th September 2010 Society has become completely urbanized. (Lefebvre, 1970) What might this mean? 1. Possible answers: A dramatic expansion of the global urban population. 2. A worldwide transformation of social, cultural and economic life organized by urbanization. 1. GLOBAL URBANIZATION Between 1980 and 2000 the number of city dwellers in the world grew by 1.1 billion. Urban populations are growing at twice the rate of the global population in general As of 2007 more than half the worlds population lives in cities, with much of the developed world almost entirely urbanized. Explosive growth of urban slums - housing as many as 600 million people worldwide. Cities of the Global South make up 80% of worlds urban population. *Caution: different measures of urban. In Canada, Australia: settlements of 1000+. However, in Italy and Jordan, population of 5000+, and Japan: settlements of 50,000+ Some of the world's largest cities 2010: Tokyo, Japan. Delhi, India. Sao Paulo, Brazil. Mumbai (Bombay) India. CHINESE CITIES China's urban population soared from 70 million in 1952 to 540 million in 2004. Every 8.5 million peasants move to cities. Britain has five urban centres of more than a million people. China has 90. (GAURDIAN,2006). 2. GLOBALIZATION Remains hard to define - globalizations dirty little secret. (Bunting & Rutherford 2006: 65) ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION growth of transnational corporations and off-shoring industrialization of the global south growing power of supranational financial institutions changing international division of labour rise of high-tech, bio-tech, new media, and other industries increased mobility of capital organization of production and markets at a global scale changing communications and transportation technologies POLITICAL GLOBALIZATION The 'hollowing out' of nation-states Rise of supranational governing bodies Growing political power of cities 'Post-national citizenship' and the formation of transnational elites ('flexible citizens') Supranational trade agreements and de-democratization'. Different mobility of capital and labour. For example, the evolution of the container. Makes transport of goods faster , cheaper, and easier. CULTURAL GLOBALIZATION Rise of new media and communications technologies. Movement of ideas, styles, music, film across borders. Death of distance and time-space compression. Decline of national identity and rise of regional, religous, linguistic, and other kinds of affinities. 3.GLOBAL CITIES Cities are not just growing, they are also key actors in globalization. The emerging global system relies on a network of urban places. A formally national urban system is becoming global. This is changing the relationship between cities, as well as the role of cities in a globalizing economy. It is also changing the internal social and spatial organization of cities. Two aspects of a given city needs to be considered in order to understand its position within these networks. The role of a city in global networks the scale of its spatial dominance (regional, national,global) National states still paly an important, (although reformed), role. ECONOMIC RESTRUCTURING Growth of primary cluster of high-level business service: finance, management, accounting, legal services, higher education, telecommunications, research Growth of secondary cluster of employment which serves the first: real estate, construction, hotels, restaurants, luxury retail, private security, entertainment Growth of third employment cluster in international tourism and hospitality Growth of these three clusters taking place at the expense of manufacturing employment (4 cluster) (some clustering of manufacturing in world cities, particularly on the periphery, to take advantage of low wage, mostly migrant labour). Government services constitute a 5th cluster and serve to build, regulate, and reproduce the world city (planning, transportation, education, policing, etc) Growth of informal economies, precarious work, and chronic unemployment SOCIAL RESTRUCTURING Growing social polarization following occupation restructuring (the decline of the middle class) Political, economic, and cultural dominance of professionals and technocrats that constitute the 1st and 2nd employment sectors Growth of a chronically underemployed surplus population, particularly new immigrants Growing social conflicts, often along the lines of race, in response to this polarization Increased reliance on police to manage social life Decline in public investment in social welfare in the name of competitiveness Growth of prisons that house former industrial labourers PHYSICAL RESTRUCTURING Rapid growth of world city populations fueled by international immigration and domestic migration. Physical growth of cities to unprecedented size (L.A. as a functional unit with a radius of over 100km) Gentrification of formerly industrial areas, downtowns, and waterfronts, and displacement of poorer populations to the declining inner suburbs Growth of warehousing space to support global supply chains Spatial polarization deepens alongside social polarization with dramatic gaps in access to and quality of housing, parks, transit (ghettos and citadels) POLITICAL RESTRUCTURING Planning and urban design decisions made in the interests of competitiveness Privatization of public services and public space with increasing reliance on CCTV and other forms of surveillance and security Supranational trade agreements displace authority of municipal governments to make decisions about service provision de-democratization Rise of new urban social movements. CANADIAN GLOBAL CITIES? Poor competitive position Canada is the only G7 country without an Alpha World City. Alpha cities are cities like New York, Paris, Frankfurt, Tokyo, in other words, the dominant players in the urban economic global picture Toronto is not on the radar screen of foreign investors.. (From Communities in an urban century Federation of Canadian Municipalities, 2006.) LECTURE #4: Tuesday 5 thOctober 2010 Working life in the 'Post industrial' City. Mentorship program: If interested in enrolling as mentees: [email protected] OR [email protected] Todays lecture about work. How has it changed? When did it change? Where? 'POST-INDUSTRIAL UBANISM? 1. De-industrialization and the movement of production. International change regional change the urban landscape 2. The New economy and precarious work growth of the service sector Professionalization Expansions of knowledge intensive occupations Precarious work. 3. The post-industrial urban landscape Gentrification and segregation Changing aesthetic norms and forms. Engel's POV: City has become repulsive and heavily polluted. Stops focusing on statistical analysis, and starts describing physical attributes of the city. 'the very turmoil of the streets has something repulsive, something against which human nature rebels' (Engels, 1845:56) FROM THE STEEL BELT..... Traditional industrial heartland steel, auto, machinery, consumer durables (5 core states: Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin) Consolidated as a distinct region in the area of water transport. Railroad development after 1860s helped to integrate the region. For most of the 20 Century, this region was the core of the US industrial economy. It would be hard to identify today due to the rapid decline. Steel belt is around detriot, south of ON and US States. TO THE RUST BELT.... Massive job loss during the late 1970s through the 1980s as production moved offshore and to the southwest. Between 1979-1986, five states lost 990,000 (or 20%) manufacturing jobs. Rise of 'spatial mismatch' in cities. Movement of production only to the suburbs. THE NEW SOUTH Tremendous growth in manufacturing in the south during the late 1970s and 80s. Growth of research and design, telecommunications and other defence related high technology industries (directly related to defence contracts) New weapons: high tech production.
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