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GGR221 Lec 8

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University of Toronto St. George
Deborah Leslie

Lec 8March1714103 PMContd From Lecture 7Looking at 3 theories to understand the sorting of cities in inequality1 The tertiary theory of location1930sCentral place theory ChristallerExplains why different activities end up in different citiesUrban hierarchy understood in terms of tertiary activitiesCities passive repositories of servicesoOn one hand there are high order centerscan find full range of services restaurants spa car dealershipoOn the other hand low order centersonly find low services corner store garage repairnot full rangeoWill have lots of low order but fewer high orderGraph many villages towns hamlets but littleof cities2 The Quaternary theory of locationDifferent theory emerges in 1990sInformation processing services more important than tertiaryCities not passive but of control places of informationprocessingTransmit a lot of knowledge relative to other citiesUrban hierarchy based on control functionsControl functions increasingly separate from production After WWIIHorizontal integration increased specialization of tasks talent moving to larger centers to access this infoVertical integrationfirms start expanding across value chain value added productsStructure emerges chartoHead office ie new yorkoHorizontal and vertical integration globalizes firmoRegional officesnational officesResults in hierarchy in officeshierarchy in citiesAfter 1970s after crisis of FordismTransnational corporations and global integrationcompanies dont have much of a home country but ownership is adispersedSpatial dispersal of productionrelocatin
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