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Lecture 9

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Department
Geography
Course
GGR240H1
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

Description
Tuesday,  November  5,  2013 GGR240 Lecture  9 Industrialization  and  Urbanization Industrialization  and  the  Growth  of  Cities -­‐ The  steam  engine  and  the  spinning  jenny—these  and  other  devices  led  to  the   construction  of  large  mills  and  factories,  and  migration  into  cities o Took  a  little  longer  to  come  to  North  America. -­‐ The  consequences  of  industrialization  for  urbanization:  two  general  images o 1)  “Prometheus  unbound”  –  taming,  releasing,  and  channeling  the  energies  of   nature o 2)  “The  age  of  great  cities”  –  a  greater  proportion  of  population  living  in  cities   than  ever  before  Example,  Rochester,  NY. • Many  cities  that  were  going  crazy  in  the  19  century. • Changes  were  dynamic  and  transformative • “Everything  in  this  bustling  place  appeared  to  be  in  motion” -­‐ The  railroad  in  the  city:  a  lasting  impact  on  urban  geography o Associated  with  pollution  and  production.  The  railroad  was  a  large  producer   of  this.  Making  factories,  housing,  etc  more  possible o We  see  in  Toronto  for  example,  the  railroad  right  at  the  heart  of  the  city. o To  some  extent,  railroads  decide  how  cities  develop -­‐ Not  just  heavy  industry:  Wall  Street,  New  York  City,  1850 o In  1860,  NY  was  the  center  of  an  emerging  strip  (a  “megalopolis”) -­‐ Increasingly  American:  US  cities  of  the  19  century o “American  cities  displayed  an  exaggerated  emphasis  on  a  narrow  spectrum  of   urban  life”  (Donald  Meinig) o This  narrow  spectrum  included:  A  society  obsessed  with  growth.  A  dedication  to  any  and  all  growth  as   good  Cities  treated  not  as  public  institutions  but  as  private  commercial   ventures  The  grid  pattern  (ideal  for  the  commodi▯ication  of  land),  and  a   miniscule  proportion  of  land  reserved  for  public  facilities  and   amenities o If  you  wanted  to  reshape  your  city,  you  often  needed  wealthy  and  private   supporters. -­‐ Central  Park,  New  York  City o The  ▯irst  public  park  in  the  United  States o Designed  (1858)  by  the  writer  Frederick  Law  Olmstead  and  the  architect   Calvert  Vaux o Considered  a  stunning  success  as  an  urban  public  space o But  before  construction  could  start,  the  area  had  to  be  cleared  of  its  poor   inhabitants The  Urbanization  of  Canada -­‐ The  national  population  rose  from  3.5  million  in  1871  to  10.4  million  in  1931 -­‐ Between  1971  and  1931,  the  proportion  of  Canadians  living  in  urban  centers  rose   from  less  than  one  in  ▯ive  to  more  than  one  in  two -­‐ Seven  major  centers  dominated  the  late-­‐19 /early-­‐20  century  Canadian  urban   hierarchy:  Montréal,  Toronto,  Winnipeg,  Vancouver,  Hamilton,  Quebec  and  Ottawa. -­‐ Changing  environments  of  daily  life;  a  physical  landscape  of  industry o Steel  production  gets  going  in  Hamilton  in  the  early  20  century The  Rise  of  Central  Canada -­‐ Increases  in  the  scale  of  production,  the  advantages  of  industrial  linkages,  and  the   capacity  of  the  railroad  to  integrate  space  all  favoured  central  Canadian  producers   by  the  early  20  century -­‐ By  1929  over  80%  of  Canadian  manufacturing  took  place  in  central  Canada—over   half  of  it  in  Ontario o Staples  thesis* -­‐ What  were  Canadian  cities  like  (1870-­‐1930) o Changing  environments  of  daily  life o You  also  have  new  technology… -­‐ Electric  streetcars:  instruments  of  the  19  and  early  20  century  urban   transformation o Communication  arteries  (people  moving  from  place  a  and  b) o Create  new  suburbs  (The  Annex  for  example) o You  can  move  work  elsewhere  (doesn’t  need  to  be  downtown) The  Differentiation  of  Urban  Space -­‐ The  “Chicago  School”  Concentric  Zone  model o The  model  features  5  districts  1  –  The  Loop  (central  Business  district) 2  –  Zoning  transition  (downtown  expanding  to  incorporate  new    buildings/old  structures  being  transformed)  3  –  Housing  belts/working  mans  homes.  4  –  Residential  zone  5  –  Commuter  zone o This  is  an  archetype/model  that  is  rarely  accurate  on  the  ground. Born  under  the  speci▯ic  city.  o Contains  troubling  assumptions  “Black  belt”  on  the  south  side  of  Chicago  “Deutschland”  German  neighborhood -­‐ St.  John’s  War  (“The  Ward”)  often  referred  to  as  a  slum,  and  a  home  for  many  new   arrivals  to  the  city. o Was  a  focus  of  tremendous  social  concern  Health,  children. o Landscapes  that  inspired  public  health  movements. -­‐ Grif▯intown  (“The  Griff”)  Montreal:  an  initially  Irish  working-­‐class  neighborhood   famously  depicted  in  Herbert  Brown  Ames,  The  City  Below  the  Hill   -­‐ Urban  differe
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