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Lecture 5

Lecture Five - Imperial Cities Part One.docx

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Department
Geography
Course
GGR241H1
Professor
Robert Lewis
Semester
Winter

Description
Lecture Five - Imperial Cities: St. Petersburg and Paris Today's Question What is the imperial city, what are the forces behind it, and how is it a product of and contribution to social inequality and exclusion? Outline What is the imperial city? 1. St. Petersburg: Russian absolutist state and new city 2. Paris: French imperial designs and Huassmannization What are imperial cities? 1. Capitals of overseas territories (Ex. Great Britain's colonies) 2. Capitals of multinational empires (Ex. Austrian-Hungary's Vienna) 3. Ports tied to oversea empires (Ex. Liverpool's ports tied Great Britain) 4. Cities central to rising superpowers (Ex. New York's capitalism) 5. Cities that represent imperial power in a colonial territory (Ex. New Delhi by Britain) Main Features of the Imperial City 1. Instrumental power rests with a ruling alliance (Ex. Versailles) a. Power is embodied in a centralized state, typically constitutional (Ex. Queen Victoria and India)/absolutist (Ex. Peter the Great) monarchy or republican state 2. Captures a substantial share of national resources from centralized centers 3. Great disparities in the distribution of resources among specific groups 4. Reflects power and glory of the ruling alliance (Ex. stock exchange) a. Functional divisions and social distinctions embedded in urban space Different Types of Imperial Cities 1. Type One: Absolutist planned city (St. Petersburg by Catherine the Great) 2. Type Two: Redevelopment of an imperial capital Paris Existing city now new) 3. Type Three: Republican Capitalist City (New York) 4. Type Four: Planned colonial city (New Delhi) a. Moving capital city to demonstrate power European Absolution 1. System of gov't where absolute power in a monarch 2. Rooted: Dominance of monarchy, central state, divine right 3. Power blocs: King, nobility, merchants, land property to complete with each other Note: Derived from feudalist system when capitalist came in and the King becomes more power through reducing power of nobles and create belief that God gave him power Absolution: Military, Bureaucracy, state codes in the hands of one (Louis XIV)  Military: Normally assemble at times of work BUT now permanent and professional  Bureaucracy: Building work force  State Codes: Wide national control Autocracy has to complete with Enlightenment ideas for ideological supremacy  Questioned presence of God, lack of freedom, religious freedom, science Russian Autocrats Peter the Great (d. 1720s): Melded Enlightenment ideas with absolute power and made important changes as a Zaar @ the age of 10  Introduced western calendar, created military, imperialist expansion, created police state Catherine the Great (1762 - 1796) con't the tradition established by Peter esp. St. Petersburg St. Petersburg 1. Established imperial city (Taken from Swedish) established in 1703 turning Absolute Planned City swap into industrial metropolis 2. European Paradise: Modeled on Amsterdam and other European imperial Cities (window into the west by changing old Russia into modern world) 3. Autocratic city with absolute to build as they see fit a. Capital Change: Moscow to St. Petersburg i. Exploitative city build on a range of labor practices (imported/prisoners/slaves) 4. Planned City: Shift from planning for defense (1703 - 1714) to planning for autocracy (after 1714) => No longer paranoid a. Autocratic design inscribed in built form and urban space i. Planners and architects built an aristocratic city ii. Focused on Western-European model 1. Dominic Trezzeni (1706-14) 2. Jean-Baptiste Le Blond (1714-19) 3. Bartolomeo Rastrelli (1730 - 62) Several Common Features of 1. Monumentality: Project greatness of the Russian empire wrt. to the King Building Process for St. and religion (Russian Orthodox) Petersburg 2. Planning: Centered on key elements of E
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