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Africa Colonization 14 march 2013.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Robert Lewis

1 Africa Colonization 14 march 2013 Part A Colonial urbanism: city types: Gazes are formed to control the minds and colonial society. Established cities: Zanzibar and Ibadan - Established trading places. They are not much affective comparing to other colony cities. - Hybrid cities: Cairo, Alexandria, Accra - New cities: Elisabethville, Nairobi, Lusaka (cities that didn’t exist before the European invasion). As a node of Belgium mining, coffee and tea trading, etc. Urban functions These were node of trade, they are connected to the trading of tea, coffee, diamonds, all sort of things. As well, there is also missionary center. They try to convert their religion, e.g. Christian. Cities were major center where missionary had their homes. Moreover, there is also administrative center.  Just like Bombay, they are just nodes for global network. Connecting trading between cities. By the mid nineteen century, developing to be the massive division of global labor. African cities are important because they are turned to be producing worldwide products. Critical to the success of European and American’s economy. There is very little existing middle class, or elite to modern in the modern senses world. However, there is still indigenous elite in the city. Cities are sites of social exclusion African cities are places of class and racial conflict and tension/ The urban built form of African colonial cities reflects these ideologies and tensions. The urban form and the conditions of houses are the reflection of these ideologies and tensions. Cities and rural commodities Mining places began to be important. They want to access to the major commodities and natural resources.  These are the keys to why there is a urban sprawl development. Specific type of development that links to this kind of economy. Rural commodities Rural commodity production, and they labor force is African. There is no legal land system. European took over large amount of fertile land. They also needed finance and infrastructure. Transportation is coming through the building of railroad so that the tea comes out from the farmland, can go to someone’s cup. Rural commodities: racial structures They all base on very embed racial realization in Africa. So, we have a very elaborate racial division of labor. White Highlands, Kenya A number of impacts of British control and European control. One impact is that incredible productivity of natural resources. Increasing depends on the cheap African labor. The relationship of capitalist relationship. 2 Racial ideology and indirect rule The superiority compelled them the civilize the masses. They see them as dirty, irrationalized, so that they think the Europeans need to go there and civilize them. Indirect rule: what is it? How do the European control the urban population? A notion of indirect rule. In Africa, they did something different than the Indians. The British did not have direct interaction with the native masses. They only went through a very small elite. Frederick Lugard: he introduces the philosophy of indirect rule. He worked in India, Niger, etc., in a variety of colony cities. Ideology and a division of labor: British are responsible of taxations. And the African elites are responsible of running the cities. A separation of ruling: the mass of population will be doing all the work in plantation or servant and so on. Advantages: Legitimization It is cheaper, and the likely of revolution and such. This indirect rule is very useful for the administrative to the European. They are legitimized the entire project of British colonialism. Urban Spaces The scale is quite different than Indian. A much more establish and formal separation of the social cities. Imposing different type of spatial structure. Native area: very distinctive set of planned area in Nigeria particularly. Buffer zones are developed for different purposes in urban spaces. Residential areas are separated between the African and European, the left overs are mostly for the masses. They
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