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GGR341 Lecture 2.docx

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Robert Lewis

th GGR341 Latin America Lecture 2, Jan 13 1. Latitudinal zonation 2. Altitudinal zonation 3. The Human Environment interaction 4. The environment and way of living 5. The Columbian Ex-change 6. Case studies 7. Climate and human vulnerability Latitudinal zonation - 5 different belts: Subtoripical belt (Northern Mexico): arid, warm, desert condition - Most of latin America fall in tropical belt: e.g., panama, a lot of variations, climates can be extremely diverse, i.e., 3 types of precipitation - Sub-Tropidcal belt: southern part of hemisphere: Uruguay, Paraguay, Northern Argentina, and Chile. Moderate temperatures, great variation; arid in the west. - ** El NiNO: used to come every 10 year, now it is occurring more often Climatic Variation Altitudinal zonation - 80% covered by Mountain in Mexico. - Altitude variation provides climate variations - The Andes Mountains – radical variations - 5 different types of climate by variation - One above sealand: hot land : Tierra caliente - Temperate land: coffee, cattle, vegetable, fruit, - Cold land: 2000~3000 : a lot of potatoes, cattle, live stock, - Colder land : 3000~ 4500: snow condition: weather changes throughout the day radically: e.g., 23 during day and 2 at night - Snowy land: kept with snow, mining, not much activity The Human-Environment Interaction - How people adopt to climate conditions - Approach – people determined by climate – life styles, culture tied with climate - Environmental determininsm and environmental possibilism – it determines and shapes how people live under such climate, and environment The Environment and Ways of living - Ways of living evolved with physical conditions and cultural strategies – e.g.,’ Chinamaps’ or floating gardens to expand over weatlands - Ability to adopt the environmental conditions - E.g., Incas created ‘Conucos’ agricultural techniques The Columbian Ex-Change New world vs Old world - New world - Europeans adopted Potato (saved from femine), Tomato, Peanuts, Corn, Tobacco (religious purposes), Chocolate, Gold and silver - Old World – Rats, disea
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