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Lecture 4

GGR341 Lecture 4.docx

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Robert Lewis

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GGR341 Latin America Lecture 4, Jan 27th RECAP from last week Monocrop for export – e.g. sugar Forms of land tenure – mita – forms of tribute – distinct in Inka - a day of labour to mining, slave labour force Cattle, estidienta – large cattle? Neocolonialism ?? vs (colonialism) – monroe doctrine – policies for international affairs – to justify interventionism – political imposition - rights were monopolized in colonial period by espenior – political autonomy gained in neocolonialism – social class, working class except children (look into lecture notes more) – countries had their independence – however, intervened politically by the US or UK – economic foreign investment taking over resources – little development , enclaves, less benefits taking place in country Eras of economic development 1. Modern/Liberal period (1880s-1930s) 2. Import Substitution Industrialization (ISI) (1940s-1970s) 3. Neoliberalism (1980s-today) 4. Post-liberalism The modern/liberal period - How is infrastructure going to be built? - Ideology that embraced in the period – free market Export-Led Model (1880s-1930s) - Banana, industries - Little economic development - Open to direct foreign investment - Little quality jobs - Mining - Uneven circumstances – countries with resources vs without, - Paraguay, Bolivia – no access to the sea - Created dependency on other countries such as the US Neo-colonialism 1. US and UK multinationals acquired large extensions of land at bargain prices i.e., United fruit Company 2. Corruption to avoid taxes and duties; political intervention to safeguard US interest (CIA in Guatemala) – local elites involved to get benefits from companies 3. Internal markets were irrelevant to multinationals 4. Promoted highly uneven development patterns 5. Workers had almost no rights – no labour regulation, can impose any rights on workers People go through state violence – mass Critique: The imperialist-neocolonial relationship - Unequal relationship – market dominated by monopolies - Raw materials are dominated by companies - Imperialist profit - Foreign direct investment: concessions of loans Economic crisis - Dependency made LAC vulnerable to global events - Drop in foreign exchange - Capacity to buy imports decreased 2. Import Substitution Industrialization (1940s-1970s) Dependent capitalist development
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