Louis worth (1938) large, dense, relatively permanent settlements of socially heterogeneous people. Lewis mumford (1961) cities were a fundamental cultural institution. Bunting and filion (2010) a place of intense social interation and exchange between strangers. Agglomeration: dense concentration of people and activity, a jumbled cluster or mass of varied parts, key charateristics: Concept of urbanization and de-urbanization: rural population growth is higher than urban population growth. Metropolitanization: bigger urban areas growing faster than smaller urban areas. Suburbanization: shifting population balance between suburban portions of metropolitan areas and rest of the country. Measuring urban places: population, economic base, administration, functional. Understanding geography i: system of cities, city as a system. Understanding geography ii: descriptive description of patterns and processes, interpretive examining how people understand and react to process and patterns, explanatory look for the origins of these patterns and processes. Approaches to urban geography i: environmentalism. Approaches to urban geography ii: positivism. Human behavior determined by scientific and universal laws.