GGR270H1 Lecture Notes - Standard Deviation, Descriptive Statistics

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15 Oct 2013
Introductory Analytical Methods
Do not need textbook, check out:
Statistic without tears
Statistics for dummies
When talking about correlation, do not write that the two points cause on another,
its not true!
Course Topics
Describing Data
o Graphs
o Simple Measures one variable, the average , the relationship
between the individual values and the average ex. your result vs the
class average.
o Simple Measures two variables. Correlations, calculating the value
or graphing the data. Deciding if two things are related and how
strongly they are related
Probability and Distributions
o Simple Probability
o Sampling Distributions
Statistical Estimation
o Process
o Techniques/ Tests
What are (is) Statistics??
Any collections of numerical data
o Vital statistics Birth rates, Death Rates
Vital Signs a report about Vital statistics of Toronto, published
in October a annual report
o Economic Indicators unemployment rates, income levels: a way of
measuring economic success or failure, seeing how successful a city is
o Social Statistics poverty rates, crime rates
This correlation is seen when you look at neighborhood
change, just because they correlate that doesn’t mean poverty
causes crime it may be the government causing the criminal
Methodology for Collecting, Presenting and Analyzing Data
o Census is a process for collecting Data, allowing policy makers to
present and analyze the data
o Summarize Findings
o Theory Validation
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