HPS211 lec4 Jan22nd.docx

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History and Philosophy of Science and Technology
Curtis Forbes

HPS211 lec4 Jan22nd Chemical Revolution th We continue into 18 century, so most of the work is deeply influenced by Newton, as his thought spread over the continent, especially his idea of mass. 1 Chemistry: Science of substance 2 Pneumatic Chemistry 3 Priestley’s Phlogiston Chemistry 4 Lavoisier’s Oxygen Chemistry 1) Science of Substance Chemistry used to be used in mix with alchemy. Often concerned itself with change in substance. Aristotle used earth, water, air, fire (e.g .tree is a wood form of earth and water and air) Chemistry studies change in substance rather than motion >>physics. Alchemy was very secretive as it’s a highly valued commodity. Used to be very encrypted. Alchemy = science of transmutation Chemistry = science of combination (distinguished by Boyle) Chemistry as taxonomy >> used for classification and distinguishing while physics only cared about the common motion. Elements and Principles Wasn’t always distinguished. Boyle thought all matter was same on basic level(similar Aristotle) 2) Pneumatic Chemistry>> of air and gas Took lots of time to understand that air is homogeneous and non reactive. Stephen Hales was first to show that some reactions give off air. Very physical approach to chemistry Was mainly concerned with how much air, rather than composition Joseph Black “fixed air” -fixed in solid bodies -Shared different airs to have different qualities -fixed in Mg and release at heat (carbon dioxide) - Created a Balance Scale that was good, lad to a good measurement of ch
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