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Lecture 10

HIS102Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Industrial Revolution, United States, Responsible Government

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Robert Bothwell

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- the british government after the declatory act of 1778 is no longer extracting money from the colonies
which does not mean a lot to upper Canada cause there is not a lot of money to be extracted, there was
very little that was produced that is said to be surplus
- on the other hand Britain poured a lot of money into the colonies, they paid for the military and defence
of the colonies
- during Napoleonic wars that happens in spades and the result is the british have to get their supllies else
where , Canada is the closes of the colonies and it produced timber and wood, and lower Canada
produces grain and Canada produces fish and all this is useful to british during the war
- the memory of being cut off by the Europeans during war haunsts the british for at least a generation, and
in the belief that they need security that is guaranteed they are willing to pay a high cost in aspect of the
relationships with the other Europeans
- the empire in the 1800-1830s is organized for security and so looking at economic policy in this period you
have to take into account the security factor, there is a possibility of war, the period after 1815 is a period
of immigration to the Canada from british, irieland and Scotland moved to briain north amercia
- majority of irish immigrants to Canada are irish protestants and not catholic as many assumewhich means
that the irish canadaian population as late as the 20th century did not see Canada as a desirable place to
- after 1840 we have the irish patato famine and as a result the catholic irish increase in population
- during the 1820s-1840s the population of british Canada is growing immensely, it is not in the 100, 000s,
in lower Canada there was a high brith rate which helped the population also grow and match that of
upper Canada
- novia scotia which once had a very large population now is no match to the population of lower Canada
- the colonies do not trade much amongst themselves, newfoundland is focused on trading fish and they
are backed up by much
- novia scotia newfoundland and P.E.I have a relation with the british west indies because the fish produced
their was cheap and plentiful and shipped to the population of the American south slaves
- british north America is NOT a place that is linked by economic contact, there is some contact due to
economic displacement
- lower Canada is still functioning under the seniourial system which made it the last refuge of the law
- the sennerioal system was a a bar to the economic development
- most of the land suitiable land for famring had been taken up and lower Canadian began to realize they
had a surplus population
- in 1840-1841, upper and lower Canada are reunited into Canada and they have an elected legislature so
by 1846,47 we have a “responsible government” meaning the doctrine that states that whoever can
command a majority in the legislature can form the government this doctrine was accepted in great
Britain during thr 1840s, and the governer general can no longer draw executive officers and ministers,
they have to be approved by the legislaures
- in economic terms this only becomes popular because the population was large and the economies were
developed that its possible to pay for the government through the colonists own resources
- by the middle of the 1840s it is no longer necessary for the government to be subsideied by the british tax
- income taxes become levied meaning taxes and expenditures become an issue in british politics which
eventually makes them an issue in british elections and british ministers who are no longer responsible to
the king and queen but the legislature in parliament have to watch how much they are spending
- the british are still responsible for candaain defence until 1860s and 90% is payed by the british, which
made sense because as long as Britain went to war so did candada since it is not a soverign state yet
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