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Lecture 9

HIS102Y1 Lecture 9: Lecture 9 - The Fall of Rome and the Rise of Byzantium

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Carol Chin

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The Fall of Rome and the Rise of Byzantium
͞Introduction (396 CE - c.650 CE - 1453 CE)͟
Specific tools that Rome used to shape the relationship it has with its subjects
o Roads between itself and its territories
o Used the local elites
o Gladiators (theatre empire)
o Imperial cult (reinforce the ideology of the empire)
Sometimes these branches of power are taken over by other people, and the empire loses the
power to control the exchanges
͞Fall, Decay, Continuity or Transformation?͟
Covered a large area of land and peoples
Very little historical evidence from the 4th and 5th century (when they began to lose their power)
No real agreement of whether this was a catastrophic fall or a gradual decay with a single or
multiple causes; perhaps a transformation from one for of rule to aother → soeties it
seems that it was all of these in different places
By the late 4th century, the Roman Empire was divided into two halves that were becoming
increasingly independent
o Resulted in a retraction of empire (through military, troops moved back, administration and
politics, less trade)
o Power shift
͞Rome: Internal Weaknesses͟
Iflatio: less oe i irulatio → less oe for ilitar/adiistratio et.
Politial istailit ad iil ar ega i 3 → elites i Roman society began to withdraw from
political/urban life to intramural estates
Disputes ithi the Christia hurh aout hat priorities ere → Roa e a good itize s.
Christian (go to heaven)
o Orthodox: Catholic
o Arian: Jesus was a subordinate of God
o Nestorian: Christ had both a divine nature and human nature
o Monophysite: purely divine, no duality
o I the th etur, there as a oplete split → Wester s. Easter Orthodo Churh
Harder to maintain an empire when there is less money, citizens have conflicting opinions
Rather than being able to sustain their own empire, they are becoming dependant on the
foederati (Germanic tribes)
o They began to work their way up in the ranks in the military
o Group of people become increasingly powerful and feel they represent a group of people
that does ot idetif itself as Roa → risk of reellio
o Odoacer: worked his way up through ranks, became the head in Italy and was able to gain
support from the rest of the military and was able to take over what was left of the Roman
Empire in 476 with his revolution
͞Rome: External Threats͟
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