Topic 3 - Spanish Succession & Peace of Utrecht (1698-1714) Topic 3 - Spanish Succession & Peace of Utrecht (1698-1714)

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16 Oct 2011

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Topic Three
War of Spanish Succession & Peace of Utrecht
The issue of Spanish Succession:
Leopard I: claim the empire for himself because:
a) He marries to a Spanish Infanta as well; in legal term he is as rightful as Louis;
b) Spanish Habsburg is related to leopard; so Spain is all his;
c) Leopard claim it to himself while Louis claim it for his son; so he actually has more
d) Leopard’s reputation and prestige grew during the success of the wars with the Turks;
demanded voice;
Louis: claim for his grandson: main reason: Maria Theresa did not get the dowry payment from Spain,
so she did not necessary renounce her succession in Spain;
The Two partition treaty (1698 & 1699)
Louis XIV and William III, wanting peace and to avoid war, offer partition to break the Spanish empire
and divide them between Bourbon France and Habsburg Austria:
1. First partition Louis own son (Naples, Sicily, Sardinia); Austria (Milines); Joseph Ferdinand (Spain);
Failed because Joseph died;
2. Second partition: Louis’s immediate heir the Dauphin Louis: (Italian lands); Archduke Charles (rest
of the empire) (Archduke Charles is not the immediate heir to the Austrian Empire);
Also failed: a) Louis XIV’s direct heir gets something while Leopard’s direct heir does not;
b) All Leopard wants is Italian lands which is exactly what he does not get (Austria is
landlocked, it did not need other territories);
c) Gains from the Turkish war made him more confident and pround;
The will of Carlos II:
-- The Spanish Empire cannot be partitioned;
-- Offers the entire Spanish empire to Philip of Anjou;
-- If Philip of Anjou rejected, then the throne goes to Louis XIV’s youngest grandson; both have to
renounce their right of French Succession;
-- If both rejected, then the throne goes to Archduke Charles;
The War of Spanish Succession:
-- Louis XIV’s mistakes led to war:
a) Retain Philip V’s right to the French throne;
b) Philip V seemed a French puppet (French troops and advisors);
c) Recognition of James IIs son, the “Old Pretender”;
-- War broke out: France vs. the Grand Alliance;
-- 1701 Austrian offensive by Prince Eugen; 1802 Anglo-Dutch offensive on the lower Rhine under
-- 1702 Bavaria joined France; Savoy and Portugal joined the Grand Alliance;
-- Until 1704 France was on its way to victory until Bavaria was crushed in the Batle of Blenheim; the
Alliance took Gibraltar;
-- 1706 Battle of Ramillies, Allied victory; conquest of Spanish Netherlands; Eugen’s victory at the Siege of
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