HIS220Y1 Lecture Notes - Plough

22 views2 pages
Published on 3 Oct 2012
School
UTSG
Department
History
Course
HIS220Y1
HIS220 Agricultural Foundations of Society Tuesday September 25th 2012
- In the Middle Ages, agriculture and peasantry were fundamental aspects of society and life
- 90-95% of the population were involved in the production of food
- The wealth in the Middle Ages was measured by land, and most of the wealth came from the
land
- 90% of the exportation of goods from England were products of the land
- While the peasants made up such a large part of the population, we have very little
sources/evidence of their everyday life
Agricultural adaptation to colder climates
History and Agriculture: longue duree and changes
- Longue duree, agriculture didn’t really change much after the changes that occur in the 11th and
12th centuries until the 2nd world war?
- Agriculture practiced in the longue duree was repetitive, the same thing was done at the same
time day after day, week after week, month after month, and year after year
- From the late 10th century to the late 13th century the weather was generally stable and a bit
warm, but beginning in the 14th century the weather began to fluctuate and became colder
- Grain made up more than half of their diets, so any slight change in the growing of grain had a
major impact on their diets and ability to feed themselves
Mediterranean Agriculture and two-field system
- 5000 BCE agriculture was developed, and the way it was done didn’t really change much
- Grains would be planted in October, but first the earth would be prepared with the Light Plow to
crush the surface of the earth
- After the land was cultivated with those winter grains, the land was left to fallow for 16 months
so that it would refertilize itself naturally (two-field system)
Three-field system and the heavy-plow
- One field was used, one was left to fallow
- Heavy plow was then introduced, needed a team of oxen to pull it (so you either needed a local
lord to pay for it or a team of peasants to pool together to buy it)
- This allowed people to cultivate previously uncultivable land in the north
- It allowed them to clear a lot more land as well
- There is thus a lot of land being put to use throughout Europe
- For instance, in the late 11th century in England there was approximately 5-6 million acres of
land used for agriculture, but by the late 13th century there was now 10 million acres used for
agriculture
- Three-field system introduced in the 12th -13th centuries: spring planting, fall planting, fallow
land
- The three-field system allowed people to stock more food and allowed for two harvests (so that
if one harvest failed they still had the hopes of the second harvest)
Unlock document

This preview shows half of the first page of the document.
Unlock all 2 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

In the middle ages, agriculture and peasantry were fundamental aspects of society and life. 90-95% of the population were involved in the production of food. The wealth in the middle ages was measured by land, and most of the wealth came from the land. 90% of the exportation of goods from england were products of the land. While the peasants made up such a large part of the population, we have very little sources/evidence of their everyday life. Longue duree, agriculture didn"t really change much after the changes that occur in the 11th and. Agriculture practiced in the longue duree was repetitive, the same thing was done at the same time day after day, week after week, month after month, and year after year. From the late 10th century to the late 13th century the weather was generally stable and a bit warm, but beginning in the 14th century the weather began to fluctuate and became colder.

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

YearlyMost Popular
75% OFF
$9.98/m
Monthly
$39.98/m
Single doc
$39.98

or

You will be charged $119.76 upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.